KABUKI GLOSSARY (S~T)
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Sabakiyaku
 

A type of tachiyaku role corresponding to a man of judgement, who thwarts the villains' plans and proves the innocence of the falsely-accused ones, using his intelligence and his clear-sightedness. The 2 best examples are Kajiwara Heiz˘ Kagetoki ("Ishikiri Kajiwara") and Hosokawa Katsumoto ("Meiboku Sendai Hagi").

In Japanese: 捌き役

Sagami
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the current prefecture of Kanagawa. It was also called S˘shű.

In Japanese: 相模

Sagi
 

A Heron.

In Japanese:

Sahainin
 

The agent of a landlord.

In Japanese: 差配人

Saiyűki
 

"Saiyűki" is the Japanese reading of the classic Chinese 1590s novel "Xiyouji", written by the Ming-dynasty writer Wu Chengen, about the Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang (known in Japan as Priest Sanz˘)'s journey to India to study Buddhist doctrine with his three retainers, the monkey Sun Wukong (Songokű in Japanese), the pig Zhu Bajie (Chohakkai in Japanese) and the kappa Sha Wujing (Sagoj˘ in Japanese).

In Japanese: 西遊記

Saiyűkimono
 

Kabuki plays based on the Chinese novel "Saiyűki". The first one was Kawatake Shinshichi III's 1878 drama "Tsűzoku Saiyűki" and the most recent one was Ichikawa Ennosuke III's 2000 "Kaka Saiyűki". Others are Oka Onitar˘'s 1926 "Chohakkai", Kawajiri Seitan's 1929 "Tsűzoku Saiyűki" or H˘j˘ Hideji's 1961 "K˘shoku Saiyűki".

In Japanese: 西遊記物

Sakaro
 

The art of maneuvering an oared craft backward as well as forward.

In Japanese: 逆櫓

Sakazuki
 

The traditional Japanese winecup for sake.

In Japanese:

Sake
 

Japanese alcoholic beverage made with fermented rice.

In Japanese:

Sakeoke
 

A sake wooden barrel fitted with a handle.

In Japanese: 酒桶

Sakura
 

The cherry tree flower.

In Japanese:

Sakuramochi
 

A sakuramochi is a traditional Japanese sweet consisting of a pink rice cake and red bean paste, covered with a leaf of cherry blossom [more details].

In Japanese: 桜餅

Sakusha
 

A playwright.

In Japanese: 作者

Sambas˘
 

"The sambas˘ is one of the most important ceremonial dances in the Kabuki theater. It originally comes from the ritual dance "Okina" in the classical theater and with vigorous stamping and shaking of bells, it is a prayer for agricultural prosperity. In the Kabuki theater, the sambas˘ used to be performed early in the morning as an opening ritual, and in turn, there are many more theatrical versions of the sambas˘ dance that appeared as part of the regular program".
(from "The Nishikawa School of Japanese Classical Dance Nihon Buy˘ in its San Francisco Premiere Performance")

In the old dance "Okina", the three main characters are Okina the white- bearded old man, Senzai (literally "thousand years"), and Sambas˘ (literally "the third oldest man"), the Black Okina. They dance in turn in a prayer for peace and a good harvest. In Kabuki versions, however, emphasis is not on Okina but on Sambas˘, with the other two becoming secondary in importance. There are many versions of the sambas˘ dance in Kabuki, notably "Ninin Sambas˘", "Shitadashi Sambas˘", "Shiki Sambas˘", "Ayatsuri Sambas˘", "Kuruwa Sambas˘" and others, all in spirited and felicitous mood.

In Japanese: 三番叟

Samurai-dokoro
 

The samurai-dokoro, the Board of Retainers, was an important office of the Kamakura and Muromachi shogunates. It was established in 1180 by Minamoto no Yoritomo, who appointed Wada no Yoshimori as head of the samurai-dokoro. The role of this board was to guard the Shogunate and give judgment on samurai criminals and to take the leadership of gokenin in case of war. After the destruction of the Wada clan by the H˘j˘ clan in 1213, the samurai-dokoro was given to the shikken [more details].

In Japanese: 侍所

Sanbaba
 

The 3 most difficult and laudable old women roles in the Kabuki repertoire: Kakuju, Bimy˘ and Koshiji in the plays "Sugawara Denju Tenarai Kagami", "ďmi Genji Senjin Yakata" and "Honch˘ Nijűshik˘". Some scholars prefer to replace Koshiji by Enju ("Hirakana Seisuiki").

In Japanese: 三婆

Sandai Adauchi
 

This expression, which means literally "the three great revenges", is used for the three most famous revenge stories in Japan history: the revenge of the Soga brothers (sogamono), the revenge of the Ak˘ forty-seven r˘nin (ak˘ r˘shi) and the Igagoe revenge (igagoemono).

In Japanese: 三大仇討

Sandaime
 

The third generation; the third holder of a name; the third actor in a lineage.

In Japanese: 三代目

Sangai tokoyama
 

Literally "third floor hairdresser". Hairdresser specialized in male roles wigs.

In Japanese: 三階床山

Sangai yakusha
 

This expression, which means literally "third floor actor", is used for lesser rank actors.

In Japanese: 三階役者

Sange
 

Confession; repentance.

In Japanese: 懺悔

Sanhime
 

The 3 most difficult and praiseworthy Princess roles in the Kabuki repertoire: Yaegaki, Yuki and Toki in the plays "Honch˘ Nijűshik˘", "Kamakura Sandaiki" and "Kinkakuji".

In Japanese: 三姫

Sanja Matsuri
 

The most spectacular and popular matsuri in the city of T˘ky˘ (it is one of the "Three Great Festivals of Edo"). Although appearing to date from older times, the present day festival was established in the Edo period and is still held every year in May around the Asakusa Jinja Shrine in the popular district of Asakusa [more details].

In Japanese: 三社祭

Sanju Kinen
 

The traditional commemoration of one's 80th birthday.

In Japanese: 傘寿記念

Sankatsu-hanshichimono
 

Dances or dramas whose main characters are the lovers Akaneya Hanshichi, the son of a sake merchant in the Yamato province, and Minoya Sankatsu, a courtesan of ďsaka. Both characters really existed and committed double suicide the 7th of the 12th lunar month of 1695 in the burial ground of Sennichi in ďsaka. The most representative work, which is still part of the current Kabuki repertoire, is "Sakaya".

In Japanese: 三勝半七物

Sanmaime
 

Actor specialized in comical roles (the Kabuki buffoon).

In Japanese: 三枚目

Sann˘ Matsuri
 

One of the most important matsuri in the city of T˘ky˘ (it is one of the "Three Great Festivals of Edo"). The present day festival was established in the Edo period and is still held every year in June around the Hie Jinja Shrine in Nagata-ch˘ in the district of Chiyoda [more details].

In Japanese: 山王祭

Sanny˘b˘
 

The 3 most difficult and laudable wife roles in the Kabuki repertoire: Otane, Otoku and Kanjo in the plays "Honch˘ Nijűshik˘", "Keisei Hangonk˘" and "Yoshitsune Koshigoej˘".

In Japanese: 三女房

Sano-yatsuhashimono
 

Kabuki dramas whose main characters are the rich farmer Sano Jir˘zaemon and the courtesan Yatsuhashi. Both characters really existed: Sano Jir˘zaemon was deeply in love with the Yoshiwara courtesan Yatsuhashi. The courtesan broke up the relationship and the farmer went mad, running amok and killing many people in the pleasure quarter. This event, which happened during the Ky˘h˘ era, was nicknamed "Yoshiwara hyakuningiri" ("the killing of one hundred people in Yoshiwara"). The most famous sano-yatsuhashimono is "Kagotsurube".

In Japanese: 佐野八橋物

Sanshű
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the current Kagawa prefecture on the island of Shikoku. It was also called Sanuki.

In Japanese: 讃州

Sansukumi
 

A sansukumi is a combination of a snake, which eats a toad, which eats a slug, whose slime is poisonous to the snake; this is the circle of deaths.

In Japanese: 三竦み

Santo Yakusha Omokage Zukushi
 

"Santo Yakusha Omokage Zukushi" was an illustrated book dedicated to Kamigata actors and to some Edo stage giants, illustrated by Suifutei in a quite comic and modern style and published in ďsaka in 1784 by Yamatoya Kaemon. Here is the list of the actors depicted in this book: Anegawa Shinshir˘ III, Arashi Hinasuke I, Arashi San'emon VI, Arashi Sangor˘ II, Arashi Sanjűr˘ IV, Arashi Shichigor˘ II, Asao Tamejűr˘ I, Asao Monz˘, late Band˘ Mitsugor˘ I, Fujikawa Hachiz˘ II, Fujikawa Sango, Ichikawa Danz˘ IV, Mimasu Daigor˘ II, Mimasu Tokujir˘ I, Mihogi Gizaemon II, Nakamura Ky˘jűr˘ II, Nakamura Nakaz˘ I, Nakamura Noshio II, Nakamura Tomijűr˘ I, Nakamura Utaemon II, Nakayama Bunshichi I, Nakayama Raisuke II, Nakayama Taz˘, Onoe Kikugor˘ I, Onoe Matsusuke I, Sawamura Kunitar˘ I, Sawamura S˘jűr˘ III, Segawa Kikunoj˘ III, Shibazaki Rinzaemon II, Somematsu Shichisabur˘ II, Yamashita Kamenoj˘ IV, Yamashita Kinsaku II, Yamashita Yaoz˘ I and Yoshizawa Iroha I.

In Japanese: 三都役者面影尽

Sanuki
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the current Kagawa prefecture on the island of Shikoku. It was also called Sanshű.

In Japanese: 讃岐

Sarashime
 

A cloth-bleaching girl in traditional Japan.

In Japanese: 晒女

Sarayashiki
 

"Sarayashiki", or "the Plate Mansion", is one of the most famous ghost stories in Japan. Okiku, a faithful servant of a daimy˘ in the province of Banshű, overheard once the chief retainer's plot to kill the daimy˘ and take over his castle. She saved her master by telling everything to her lover, who was loyal to the lord and the plot was foiled. The evil retainer got revenge by stealing one of ten important dishes belonging to the daimy˘, who blamed it on Okiku and had her executed by throwing her in the well. Okiku's ghost could not rest It was said that people could still hear her counting the dishes but she always stopped at nine, until her former master was driven insane. Okiku's well is located in the precincts of the famous Himejij˘, close to the place where samurai were forced to commit ritual disembowelment. There are two wells. The first one was used for washing away the blood of seppuku. The second one, a kind of morbid attraction, is known as Okiku's well. You might still hear her there counting the dishes... [more details]

In Japanese: 皿屋敷

Saru
 

One of the twelve signs of the zodiac (jűnishi). Saru is the sign of the monkey.

In Japanese:

Saruguma
 

Literally "monkey make-up". A kumadori created by the actor Nakamura Denkur˘ I for the role of Asaina.

In Japanese: 猿隈

Saruhiki
 

A monkey showman.

In Japanese: 猿曳

Sarumawashi
 

A monkey showman.

In Japanese: 猿回し

Saruwaka-ryű
 

The Saruwaka-ryű is a school of Buy˘, which was established in Edo by Saruwaka Denkur˘. It ended in 1851 with the death of Nakamura Kanzabur˘ XII, who was the 6th headmaster but had no heir. This school was revived in 1941 by Hanayagi Sukegor˘, a member of the Hanayagi school, who took the name of Saruwaka Bukaku (Bukaku was the haimy˘ of Saruwaka Denkur˘) and became de facto the 7th headmaster. He changed his name to Saruwaka Kiyokata I in 1948. The current headmaster, the 9th, is Saruwaka Kiyokata I's grandson Saruwaka Seizabur˘ II since April 2012 [official website].

In Japanese: 猿若流

Sat˘ Masakiyo
 

The Kabuki role name of the warrior Kat˘ Kiyomasa during the Edo period. Because of strict Shogunate censorship, the playwrights had to change the names. However, the changes were quite light and the audience had no problem to understand who was who.

In Japanese: 佐藤正清

Satomi-hakkendenmono
 

Dramas based on Takizawa_Bakin's voluminous novel "Nans˘ Satomi Hakkenden" ("Hakkenden").

In Japanese: 里見八犬伝物

Satta T˘ge
 

A famous pass (t˘ge) on the T˘kaid˘ road.

In Japanese: 薩埵峠

Sayaate
 

Rivalry in love. 2 impetuous and elegant lovers compete for the love of the same courtesan in the heart of the pleasure quarters. The most famous love competition is between Nagoya Sanza and Fuwa Banzemon, confronting each other to win the love of the courtesan Katsuragi (Sanza's wife who had to sell herself into prostitution). The scene requires the use of 2 hanamichi for the simultaneous entrance of both lovers.

In Japanese: 鞘当

Seichű ďboshi Ichidai Banashi
 

A series of prints made by Utagawa Toyokuni III between 1847 and 1852, whose main subject is ďboshi Yuranosuke, the hero of the classic "Kanadehon Chűshingura". The title "Seichű ďboshi Ichidai Banashi" was translated in English by "The Life of ďboshi the Loyal".

In Japanese: 誠忠大星一代話

Seigen-sakurahimemono
 

Plays about the priest Seigen, abbot of the Kiyomizudera Temple in Ky˘to, and Princess Sakura. The burning passion of the priest for the beautiful princess leads to a series of tragedies and deaths. In the current repertoire, the spectacular drama "Sakura Hime" is the most significant seigen-sakurahimemono.

In Japanese: 清玄桜姫物

Seiry˘zan
 

Mount Seiry˘ in China. A sacred mountain, famous for its legendary Shakky˘.

In Japanese: 清涼山

Seishű
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the northern part of the current Mie prefecture. It was also called Ise.

In Japanese: 勢州

Sekai
 

A world. In Kabuki, a sekai is a dramatic world, with a well-defined set of characters and actions, related to well-known historical events or legends.

In Japanese: 世界

Seki-juku
 

Seki-juku or Seki-shuku. The 47th (from Edo) of the 53 shukuba (post station) on the T˘kaid˘. xxx km from Edo and 72.5 km from Ky˘to [more details].

In Japanese: 関宿

Semeba
 

Physical or psychological torture scene in a Kabuki play. One of the most famous ones is the highlight of the play "Dan no Ura Kabuto Gunki".

In Japanese: 責め場

Sendai J˘ruri
 

Sendai j˘ruri is an old style j˘jűri, also called okuj˘ruri or okuni J˘ruri. In this style the singer narrates the story to the rhythm of a fan or biwa.

In Japanese: 仙台浄瑠璃

Send˘
 

A boatman.

In Japanese: 船頭

Send˘mono
 

Kabuki dances whose main character is a boatman (send˘). The most famous one, which is still in the current Kabuki repertoire, is "Kaminari Send˘".

In Japanese: 船頭物

Sengakuji
 

One of the most famous temples in T˘ky˘, located in the district of Takanawa. Its cemetery is famous because the graves of Lord Asano and his 47 faithful retainers (the Ak˘ R˘shi) are there [more details].

In Japanese: 泉岳寺

Sengoku Jidai
 

The Age of the Warring Provinces. A long troubled period in Japanese history, which started with the ďnin War (1467~1477) and ended with the final victory of the Tokugawa over the Toyotomi clan. The following period was the Edo period.

In Japanese: 戦国時代

Senry˘ Yakusha
 

Literally, an actor who is worth 1,000 ry˘. A stage giant during the Edo period.

In Japanese: 千両役者

Senshű
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the southern part of the current ďsaka Prefecture. It was also called Izumi.

In Japanese: 泉州

Sent˘ Gosho
 

The Sent˘ Imperial Palace in Ky˘to. It was a palace for retired emperors, built in 1630. It was destroyed by fire and rebuilt several times, up to the final blaze in 1854, after which it was never reconstructed. It is now a 89,000 m2 garden, which can be visited [More details].
--> More pictures

In Japanese: 仙洞御所

Seppuku
 

Ritual suicide by self-disembowelment for warriors to atone for their mistakes.

In Japanese: 切腹

Seri
 

Stage lift.

In Japanese: セリ

Seriage
 

Operation of stage trapdoors and stage lifts to bring actors or scenery on stage. There are 3 trapdoors in a normal Kabuki theater: the suppon, the ˘seri and the koseri.

In Japanese: セリ上げ

Seriu
 

A village located in the outskirts of Ky˘to. Takebe Genz˘ opened in this village a calligraphy school, which is the center of the famous "Terakoya" scene of the classic play "Sugawara Denju Tenarai Kagami".

In Japanese: 芹生

Settsu
 

Old province, which was made up of the southeastern part of the current Hy˘g˘ prefecture and the western part of the ďsaka Prefecture.

In Japanese: 摂津

Sewa Ny˘b˘
 

A townman's wife role in a sewamono drama.

In Japanese: 世話女房

Sewamono
 

Domestic dramas dealing with the lives of commoners. More realistic in style, scenery and costums than the historical plays (jidaimono). The first sewamono in Kabuki history was Chikamatsu Monzaemon's "Sonezaki Shinjű". Sewamono means the sewa things, sewa being a contraction of the words seken (society of the day) and wadai (subject).

"Sewamono portray in relatively realistic fashion the life of the ordinary people of the Edo Period, although plays in this category often show some stylization in presentation, especially at climactic moments (Paul M. Griffith)."

In Japanese: 世話物

Shaberi
 

The equivalent for onnagata of the monogatari for tachiyaku.

In Japanese: しゃべり

Shakky˘
 

A legendary stone bridge, 30 centimeters in width, 30 meters in length, located on top of mount Seiry˘ in China and overlooking a bottomless precipice. This is the title of a famous drama, telling the story of a Japanese aristocrat who has renounced the world to become a priest and goes to China in order to find and pray on top of mount Seiry˘ in front of the grave of Monju Bosatsu, a disciple of Buddha usually depicted as either riding or leading on a leash a Lion look-alike creature. In Kabuki, the Shakky˘ is the background of beautiful Lion dances. "This lion is invariably associated with the peony flower which attracts him, and butterflies which irritate him. The peony affords the decorative color for a stage property, and the butterflies create movement. In this there is a basic esthetic satisfaction for the spectator in witnessing an expression of the duality of the lion's nature--repose (symbolized by the peonies) and anger (aroused by the butterflies)." (Faubion Bowers in "Japanese Theatre")

In Japanese: 石橋

Shakky˘mono
 

Lion dances based on the Shakky˘ legend.

In Japanese: 石橋物

Shakuhachi
 

A traditional bamboo flute.

In Japanese: 尺八

Shamisen
 

Japanese traditional instrument of music, a key instrument for Kabuki musical accompaniment, looking like a fretless lute made up of a long neck, three strings and a body in snake skin (in the old days) or cat skin (nowadays). The player hits the chord with a plectrum.

In Japanese: 三味線

Shibai
 

The Theatre; the Kabuki world; a play; a drama.

In Japanese: 芝居

Shibai jaya
 

A tea house (chaya) located within a theater.

In Japanese: 芝居茶屋

Shichi Fukujin
 

The Seven Gods of Good Fortune.

In Japanese: 七福神

Shichinin no Kai
 

A Kabuki study group created by seven Kamigata actors in 1958: Nakamura Ganjir˘ II, Kataoka Nizaemon XIII, Hayashi Mataichir˘ II, Nakamura Senjaku II, Jitsukawa Enjir˘ II, Kataoka Gad˘ V and Nakamura Fukusuke V. The main goal of this group was to revive old Kamigata dramas or to perform classics in the Kamigata style. The first program was staged at the end of August 1958, in ďsaka at the Mainichi Hall and included the dramas "Kawash˘", "Numazu" and "Fűin Giri". A second program was staged for 12 days in July 1959, in ďsaka at the Mainichi Hall and included the dramas "Shin Usuyuki Monogatari", "Daianji Zutsumi", "Meido no Hikyaku" and "Ono no T˘fű Aoyagi Suzuri". A third program was scheduled for August 1960 but for some financial reasons, it did not happen.

In Japanese: 七人の会

Shichisan
 

Important theater feature in Kabuki, the shichisan is located on the hanamichi, on top of the suppon. Its distance to the stage is 30% of the length of the hanamichi, which explains the origin of the name (shichisan means literally 7-3, 7 units of length to the agemaku and 3 units to the stage). Any actor entering or leaving the stage through the hanamichi has to stop on this symbolic point, either to strike a mie or deliver a line. It is also the point of apparition or disappearance through the suppon for supernatural creatures.

In Japanese: 七三

Shichiya
 

A pawnshop.

In Japanese: 質屋

Shigoku-j˘-j˘-kichi
 

A very prestigious rank in a hy˘banki. Possible translation: exceedingly - superior - superior - excellent.

In Japanese: 至極上上吉

Shij˘
 

The 4th avenue in Ky˘to. This is one of Ky˘to's most important downtown streets, going from the Yasaka Shrine (eastern hills) to the Matsunoo Shrine (western hills) [more details].

In Japanese: 四条

Shi-j˘-j˘-kichi
 

An important and prestigious rank in a hy˘banki. Possible translation: unique - superior - superior - excellent.

A big thank to Akiko-San for the translation

In Japanese: 至上上吉

Shikken
 

The shikken was the regent for the Sh˘gun in the Kamakura Shogunate. The post was monopolized by the H˘j˘ clan. The first shikken was H˘j˘ no Tokimasa from 1203 to 1205. The last (and 16th) shikken was H˘j˘ Moritoki [more details].

In Japanese: 執権

Shimabara
 

A famous pleasure quarter in Ky˘to.

In Japanese: 島原

Shimabara Ky˘gen
 

The prostitute-accosting routines of the Yar˘ Kabuki (adult Kabuki) during the 1650s and the first years of the 1660s. These plays, which were set in the Shimabara pleasure quarter, were forbidden by the authorities in 1664.

In Japanese: 島原狂言

Shim˘sa
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the current Chiba and Ibaraki Prefectures [more details]. It was also called S˘shű.

In Japanese: 下総

Shimote
 

Stage right. The left of the stage from the audience viewpoint. [=> kamite].

In Japanese: 下手

Shimotsuke
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the current prefecture of Tochigi. It was also called Yashű.

In Japanese: 下野

Shinano
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the current prefecture of Nagano. It was also called Shinshű.

In Japanese: 信濃

Shinagawa-juku
 

Shinagawa-juku or Shinagawa-shuku. The first (from Edo) of the 53 shukuba (post station) on the T˘kaid˘. 8 km from Edo and 483.2 km from Ky˘to [more details].

In Japanese: 品川宿

Shin-goku-j˘-j˘-kichi
 

A very prestigious rank in a hy˘banki. Possible translation: truly extreme - superior - superior - excellent.

In Japanese: 眞極上上吉

Shinie

Commemorative print made after the death of a popular actor [More details].

In Japanese: 死絵

Shin-j˘-j˘-kichi
 

A prestigious rank in a hy˘banki. Possible translation: truly - superior - superior - excellent.

In Japanese: 眞上上吉

Shinjű
 

Lovers' double suicide.

In Japanese: 心中

Shinjűmono
 

Dramas dealing with a shinjű.

In Japanese: 心中物

Shinkabuki
 

New Kabuki dramas written since Meiji by playwrights from outside the Kabuki world.

In Japanese: 新歌舞伎

Shin Kabuki Jűhachiban
 

A collection of 32 favourite plays selected by Ichikawa Danjűr˘ IX, many of which are included in the katsureki genre. The term jűhachiban actually means "eighteen", but here is used more generally to indicate one actor's particular selection of favourites. Here is the list:

Tora no Maki Koshigoej˘ Shigemori Kangen Takatoki
Ise no Sabur˘ Hidari Kogatana Onna Kusunoki Mukai Sh˘gen
Rensh˘ Monogatari Shikigawa Mond˘ Egara Mond˘ Funa Benkei
Momijigari K˘ya Monogatari Kagami Jishi Fukitori Zuma
Jishin Kat˘ Sakai no Taiko Tsuri Gitsune Yamabushi Settai
Tako no Tametomo Nakakuni Shin Nanatsu Men SHIHEI NO NANA WARAI
Sanada no Harinuki Zutsu Kibi Daijin Nakamitsu Shizuka H˘rakumai
Mongaku Kanjinch˘ Su˘ Otoshi Ninin Bakama ďmori Hikoshichi

In Japanese: 新歌舞伎十八番

Shinkigeki
 

Literally the New Kigeki. A new theatrical venture which was created in 1903 by two ďsaka brothers, Soganoya Gor˘ (1877~1948) and Soganoya Jűr˘ (1869~1925) and which they termed Shinkigeki (New Comedy). The two brothers were initially Kabuki actors. The younger actor was a disciple of Nakamura Sangor˘ and his first stage name was Nakamura Sannosuke. The elder brother was a disciple of Nakamura Tokiz˘ I and his first stage name was Nakamura Tokiyo. Nakamura Sannosuke and Nakamura Tokiyo took the names of Soganoya Gor˘ and Soganoya Jűr˘. Their ichiza, the Soganoya Brothers Troupe, was founded in 1904. Their plays were mainly working-class comedies. Nowadays, Shinkigeki is still produced by the Sh˘chiku Company under the name Sh˘chiku Shinkigeki.

In Japanese: 新喜劇

Shinkiyomizudera
 

Shinkiyomizudera, literally the new Kiyomizu Temple, is in fact the Kiyomizu Temple in ďsaka. Less famous and less spectacular than the original temple in Ky˘to, its ďsaka version was also built upon a hill, has a famous waterfall (called the Tamade waterfall) and a stage, which explains why it was considered as one of the 100 most famous views in Naniwa). It was founded in 1640 as a sub-temple of the huge Tenn˘ji temple.

In Japanese: 新清水寺

Shinko Engeki Jűsshu
 

A collection of 10 dance-dramas made by the Meiji star Onoe Kikugor˘ V:

  • "Rakan"
  • "Kodera no Neko"
  • "Tsuchi Gumo"
  • "Ibaraki"
  • "Hitotsuya"
  • "Modoribashi"
  • "Kikujid˘"
  • "Hagoromo"
  • "Migawari Zazen"
  • "Osakabe Hime"
  • "Rakan" and "Kodera no Neko" were performed for the first time by his grandfather Onoe Kikugor˘ III. "Migawari Zazen" and "Osakabe Hime" were added in the collection by Onoe Kikugor˘ VI.

    In Japanese: 新古演劇十種

    Shinmachi
     

    The most famous pleasure quarter in ďsaka. It was set up about 1656.

    In Japanese: 新町

    Shinmachi Kuken
     

    Kuken (or Kukenmachi) was the name of a famous part of the pleasure quarter of Shinmachi in ďsaka. It was said that the name of Kukenmachi was derived from kuken chaya (literally the Nine Tea Houses) that had been located in the district of Tamatsukuri and were moved later in Shinmachi. Kukenmachi was famous for its cherry blossoms (one of the most famous views in Naniwa).

    In Japanese: 新町九軒

    Shinobu
     

    The hare's-foot hern.

    In Japanese:

    Shinobue
     

    The shinobue is a Japanese transverse flute which emits a high-pitched sound [more details].

    In Japanese: 篠笛

    Shinpa
     

    Literally "the new school". Shinpa was a genre of theatre, which appeared in Japan during the Meiji era. It depicted the manners and customs of contemporary Japan. It was characterized by a more naturalistic style than Kabuki and the coexistence of onnagata and actresses. Shinpa dramas were usually very sentimental with a tragic end. Shinpa quickly became extremely popular and was a serious rival for Kabuki during the second half of the Meiji era. This genre got finally caught between tradition and modernity, losing its appeal for both the Kabuki audience and the modern "Western" theatre audience. There are still Shinpa actors and performances in Japan, mainly in T˘ky˘ at the Shimbashi Embuj˘. Shinpa has still nowadays its aficionados, who love its nostalgic flavor. Some Kabuki actors sometimes perform in Shinpa productions.

    In Japanese: 新派

    Shinshű
     

    Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the current prefecture of Nagano. It was also called Shinano.

    In Japanese: 信州

    Shint˘
     

    Shint˘ is a polytheistic religion in Japan [more details].

    In Japanese: 神道

    Shin'yoshiwara
     

    The "New Yoshiwara". In 1657 the city of Edo was destroyed by a big fire. The pleasure quarter of Yoshiwara was reduced to ashed and the Bakufu deciced to rebuild it in the district of Asakusa, in the bend of the Sumida River. Shin'yoshiwara played its social role and prospered up to the anti-prostitution law of the first of April 1957.

    In Japanese: 新吉原

    Shinz˘
     

    An apprentice courtesan in the pleasure quarters during the Edo period.

    In Japanese: 新造

    Shiokumi
     

    A woman who works hauling brine to make salt. In Japanese Traditional Theater, the word shiokumi means more precisely the two famous salt-making sisters Matsukaze and Murasame, who both fell in love with the same man, the courtier Ariwara no Yukihira (818~893), an exile at Suma. This story, along with several of Yukihira's poems from famous compilations, form the basis of Kan'ami's (1333~84) play, which was entitled "Matsukaze" and in which the ghosts of Matsukaze and Murasame wait at Suma beach for Yukihira's promised return, cherishing his outer cloak and cap left as keepsakes. It also became later a famous role in many hengemono. The most famous one is "Shiokumi".

    In Japanese: 汐汲

    Shiomi no Mie
     

    The "staring at the sea" mie, a ferocious pose by Kezori Kuemon, the hero of the drama "Koi Minato Hakata no Hitofushi", who stands imposingly at the prow of his boat. This unique mie was created by Ichikawa Danjűr˘ IX.

    In Japanese: 汐見の見得

    Shiraby˘shi
     

    "A shiraby˘shi can be considered an early precursor of the geisha and dates back to 1115, when the daughters of two high families, Suma no Senzai and Waka no Mae, are said to have attired themselves in the white garb of noblemen, wearing the high hat known as tateboshi, and danced with swords. In the beginning, the shiraby˘shi danced a form of ceremonial dance, but later it developed into less virile and more elegant forms, which were used by these entertainers waiting upon the great at their banquets. The legend is shrouded in the obscurity customary in these cases, but at any rate, the shiraby˘shi were accomplished women who in the past entertained others with singing, dancing and playing." (A. C. Scott in "The Kabuki Theatre of Japan")

    In Japanese: 白拍子

    Shiraga
     

    White hair; gray hair.

    In Japanese: 白髪

    Shiranami
     

    Term synonymous with thief. The litteral meaning is "white wave".

    In Japanese: 白浪

    Shiranamimono
     

    Kizewamono drama depicting the adventures of a thief or a band of thieves.

    In Japanese: 白浪物

    (Shiro)j˘
     

    [Visual]. A beginner rank in a hy˘banki. (Shiro)j˘ is in fact with the ideogram written in white. Possible translation: (white) superior.

    In Japanese: 白上

    Shiro Yoten
     

    One of the five main yoten costumes. "This costume is of the same cut as the nishiki yoten, but all of the garments are of white silk except for the purple shigoki sash. The wig is also different, in this case being the honke no mizuiri type, which is often worn in battle scenes." (Ruth Shaver in "Kabuki Costume")

    In Japanese: 白四天

    Shirozake
     

    Literally the white sake. Shirozake is strictly speaking not sake as it is made from a mixture of steamed glutinous rice, mirin, k˘ji and sh˘chű. After maturing for a month, this mixture is then crushed in a mortar. It contains only 10% alcohol (but is considered as a type of liquor) and almost half of the pulpy mixture is a sweet rice porridge [more details].

    In Japanese: 白酒

    Shishi
     

    A shishi is a mythological lion-like animal said to be the king of beasts and always associated with the Buddhist deity Monju.

    In Japanese: 獅子

    Shishimai
     

    A Lion (shishi) Dance.

    In Japanese: 獅子舞

    Shitamachi
     

    A downtown area; a traditional working-class neighborhood in T˘ky˘.

    In Japanese: 下町

    Shitenn˘
     

    This expression comes from the four Deva kings in Buddhism. It was used for the four valiant and strong retainers of Minamoto Yorimitsu (commonly called Raik˘): Sakata Kintoki, Watanabe Tsuna, Usui Sadamitsu and Urabe Suetake. It was also used for the four retainers of Minamoto Yoshitsune: Suruga Jir˘, Kamei Rokur˘, Kataoka Hachir˘ and Hitachib˘ Kaison.

    In Japanese: 四天王

    Shitenn˘mono
     

    Dramas or dances whose main characters are Minato Raik˘ and his shitenn˘. The two best examples are "Tsuchi Gumo" and "Kumo no Hy˘shimai".

    In Japanese: 四天王

    Shittogoto
     

    Style and techniques used by an onnagata actor portraying an extremely jealous woman. In most of the plays, she dies and becomes a vengeful ghost.

    In Japanese: 嫉妬事

    Sh˘chiku
     

    The Sh˘chiku Company is a leading company of the Entertainent World in Japan, producing movies and plays. It manages all the Kabuki actors (with the exception of the independent Zenshinza troupe) and several major theaters. It was founded in Ky˘to in 1902 by the twin brothers Shirai Matsujir˘ (1877~1951) and ďtani Takejir˘ (1877~1970). The name Sh˘chiku uses the first ideograms of both first names, sh˘ being the Sino-Japanese reading of matsu (the Pine) and chiku being the Sino-Japanese reading of take (the Bamboo) [more details].

    In Japanese: 松竹

    Sh˘chiku Shinkigeki
     

    A Shinkigeki troupe which was founded by the Sh˘chiku Company in 1949.

    In Japanese: 松竹新喜劇

    Sh˘chű
     

    A strong distilled liquor [more details].

    In Japanese: 焼酎

    Shodai
     

    The first actor in a lineage; the founder of a line.

    In Japanese: 初代

    Sh˘h˘
     

    An imperial era in Japanese history which started the 16th day of the 12th lunar month of the 21st year of the Kan'ei era (the 13th of January 1645 in the western calendar) and ended the 15th day of the 2nd lunar month of 1648 (the 7th of April 1648 in the western calendar). The 2 eras before and after Sh˘h˘ were Kan'ei and Keian.

    In Japanese: 正保

    Sh˘ji
     

    Sliding doors and windows made of a latticework wooden frame and covered with a tough, translucent white paper, used in the traditional Japanese Architecture. It goes without saying that it is a key element for Kabuki plays interior design.

    In Japanese: 障子

    Sh˘j˘
     

    A mythical sake-loving baboon look-alike spirit that lives in the sea.

    In Japanese: 猩猩

    Sh˘no-juku
     

    Sh˘no-juku or Sh˘no-shuku. The 45th (from Edo) of the 53 shukuba (post station) on the T˘kaid˘. 404.7 km from Edo and 86.5 km from Ky˘to [more details].

    In Japanese: 庄野宿

    Shosagoto
     

    Kabuki Dance-drama.

    In Japanese: 所作事

    Sh˘taku
     

    Literally the house of the mekake. A house purchased by a wealthy man to lodge his mistress.

    In Japanese: 妾宅

    Sh˘toku
     

    An imperial era in Japanese history which started the 25th day of the 4th lunar month of 1711 (the 11th of June 1711 in the western calendar) and ended the 22nd day of the 6th lunar month of 1716 (the 9th of August 1716 in the western calendar). The 2 eras before and after Sh˘toku were H˘ei and Ky˘h˘.

    In Japanese: 正徳

    Sh˘wa
     

    An imperial era in Japanese history which started the 25th December 1926 and ended the 7th January 1989. The 2 eras before and after Sh˘wa were Taish˘ and Heisei.

    In Japanese: 昭和

    Sh˘ya
     

    A village headman (in the Edo period).

    In Japanese: 庄屋

    Shud˘
     

    Same-sex love in the warrior class. During the Edo period and before, it was a custom for a young samurai to apprentice to an older and more experienced man. They would be lovers all along the apprentice. Shud˘ means literally the way of youth; it was said to be held in high esteem by the warrior class.

    In Japanese: 衆道

    Shugenja
     

    A Buddhist priest who trains himself by enduring ascetic practices.

    In Japanese: 修験者

    Shűgy˘sha
     

    A practitioner of Buddhist austerities.

    In Japanese: 修行者

    Shukuba
     

    A shukuba was a post station during the Edo period on one of the major highways like the T˘kaid˘ or the Nakasend˘ [more details]. synonymous with shukueki.

    In Japanese: 宿場

    Shukueki
     

    A shukueki was a post station during the Edo period on one of the major highways like the T˘kaid˘ or the Nakasend˘ [more details]. synonymous with shukuba.

    In Japanese: 宿駅

    Shűmei
     

    Name-taking ceremony for an actor.

    In Japanese: 襲名

    Shunie
     

    An abbreviation for shunigatsue, the "Second-Month Service". "The ceremony of water and fire in Nara T˘daiji temple is called shunie ceremony, which is also known as omizutori. It's said that spring comes to Nara, with the end of this festival. Shunie ceremony is held from March 1st to 14th (it's in February in the lunar calendar) every year at T˘daiji temple, Nara. T˘daiji temple is well known for hosting a great Buddha statue. Shunie means the ceremony of February in Japanese and is the series of Buddhist rituals, in which priests pray to the eleven-headed goddess Kannon by confessing their sins and defilement. The ceremony is held at Nigatsud˘ hall. Eleven priests, called rengy˘shű, pray for nation's prosperity and world peace by strengthening their piety through religious exercise. This ceremony has been practiced every year for more than 1200 years." (from gojapan.about.com) [more details].

    In Japanese: 修二会

    Shunjűkai
     

    The Shunjűkai is a Kabuki study group founded in 1966 by Ichikawa Ennosuke III. It was used to revive long-forgotten spectacular Kabuki dramas. The first program, "Taiheiki Chűshin K˘shaku", was staged in July 1966 at the T˘yoko Hall.

    In Japanese: 春秋会

    Shunjűza
     

    The first Shunjűza was a theatre study group founded in 1920 by Ichikawa Ennosuke II, whose main advisors are the playwright Osanai Kaoru and the actor Ichikawa Sadanji II. The first program of the Shunjűza was staged in October 1920 at the Shintomiza and was made up of Tanizaki Jun'ichir˘'s "H˘seiji Monogatari", Kikuchi Kan's "Chichi Kaeri" and Okamoto Kid˘'s "Nadate Kuzure". This experience ended in April 1923.

    The second Shunjűza, led by Ichikawa Ennosuke II, started in January 1931 and ended in April 1932. Others actors were Kawarazaki Ch˘jűr˘ IV, Nakamura Kan'emon III, Ichikawa Yaoz˘ VIII, Ichikawa Danshir˘ III, Ichikawa Kodayű II, Ichikawa Arajir˘ II and Ichikawa Sash˘ II.

    Shunjűza is also the name of a theater which was built within the Ky˘to University of Arts and Design (Ky˘to Z˘kei Geijutsu Daigaku).

    In Japanese: 春秋座

    Shűtangoto
     

    Style and techniques used by an onnagata actor in a tragic (grieving) scene.

    In Japanese: 愁嘆事

    Shuten D˘ji
     

    A legendary ogre in Japanese Mythology. One thousand years ago, the giant ogre Shuten D˘ji lived in the mountain ďeyama in the province of Tamba. He was said to love sake and terrorized the nearby city of Ky˘to by kidnapping beautiful noblewomen and forcing them to serve him before he ate them. He was killed by Minamoto no Raik˘, who marched victoriously back to Ky˘to hauling Shuten D˘ji's head in an ox-cart.

    In Japanese: 酒呑童子

    Shűzan Jisshu
     

    A collection of dramas gathered by Nakamura Kichiemon I:

  • Matsuura no Taiko
  • Nij˘j˘ no Kiyomasa
  • Urusanj˘ no Kiyomasa
  • Kumamotoj˘ no Kiyomasa
  • Yasaku no Kamabara
  • Kiyomasa Seichűroku
  • In Japanese: 秀山十種

    Sobaya
     

    A buckwheat noodle shop.

    In Japanese: 蕎麦屋

    S˘d˘
     

    Jidaimono drama depicting the disturbances, scandals and succession conflicts within a clan. The most famous ones are "Meiboku Sendai Hagi" and "Kagamiyama Koky˘ no Nishikie".

    In Japanese: 騒動

    S˘en'u
     

    The equivalent of dankikusa in Kamigata. This expression was used for the triumvirat of Meiji tachiyaku stars in ďsaka and Ky˘to: Nakamura jűr˘, Jitsukawa Enjaku I and Ichikawa Udanji I.

    In Japanese: 宗延右

    Soga Matsuri
     

    The Soga festival. It was a custom in Edo theaters to produce a sogamono as new year program and to use the characters of the Soga world from January up to the end of May. It ended the 28th of May (the day of the revenge!) and a festival called soga matsuri was held backstage to celebrate both the end of the new year program and the killing of Kud˘ Saemon Suketsune. The soga matsuri moved in the middle of the Edo period from the backstages to the stages, in order to please not only the actors but the theaters audience.

    In Japanese: 曾我祭

    Sogamono
     

    Dramas or dances based on the famous revenge of the Soga brothers. The 28th of May 1193, the brothers Soga Gor˘ Tokimune and Soga Jűr˘ Sukenari killed Kud˘ Saemon Suketsune, who assassinated their father in 1175. This revenge occurred during a hunting party organized at the foot of Mount Fuji by Kud˘, with Minamoto Yoritomo as the guest of honour. The Soga brothers became Kabuki heroes during the 18th century and countless of dramas were produced with their sekai. It was a custom for all the Edo theaters to produce a sogamono as new year program. The Soga brothers' sekai was used from January up to the end of May. The two characters are highly stylized: Gor˘ is impetuous, wears costums decorated with butterflies and is usually played in the aragoto style. Jűr˘ is refined, wears costums decorated with plovers (chidori) and is usually played in the wagoto style. The others characters of the Soga world are Kud˘ Saemon Suketsune, the courtesan ďiso no Tora (Jűr˘'s lover), the courtesan Kewaizaka no Sh˘sh˘ (Gor˘'s lover), Oni˘ Shinzaemon (Jűr˘'s retainer), Danzabur˘ (Gor˘'s retainer), Kobayashi no Asahina (a friend of the Soga family), Mank˘ (the brothers' mother), ďmi no Kot˘ta (Kud˘'s retainer) and Yawata no Sabur˘ (Kud˘'s retainer).

    The most famous sogamono are "Kotobuki Soga no Taimen", "Ya-no-Ne" and "Ame no Gor˘".

    In Japanese: 曾我物

    S˘ke
     

    A grand master. In some Buy˘ schools of dance, there is a s˘ke (grand master) instead of an iemoto. Or there are both a s˘ke and an iemoto. The hierarchical relationship and role division between s˘ke and iemoto vary widely depending on the school.

    In Japanese: 宗家

    Sonohachi
     

    Synonymous with Miyazono.

    In Japanese: 薗八

    S˘shű
     

    Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the current prefecture of Kanagawa. It was also called Sagami.

    In Japanese: 相州

    S˘shű
     

    Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the current Chiba and Ibaraki Prefectures [more details]. It was also called Shim˘sa.

    In Japanese: 総州

    Soto-ga-Hama
     

    The Soto-ga-Hama beach. A famous beach in Northern Japan, located near the eponymous city in the northwestern Aomori Prefecture in the T˘hoku region of Japan [a famous print].

    In Japanese: 外ヶ浜

    Sugoroku
     

    A traditional Japanese game similar to "snakes and ladders" [more details].

    In Japanese: 双六

    Suifutei Gigafu
     

    "Suifutei Gigafu" was an illustrated book dedicated to Kamigata actors, illustrated by Suifutei in a quite comic and modern style and published in ďsaka in 1782. Here is the list of the actors depicted in this book: Anegawa Minato II, Arashi Bungor˘ I, Arashi Hinasuke I, Arashi San'emon VI, Arashi Sangor˘ II, Arashi Sanjűr˘ IV, Asao Kunigor˘ II, Asao Tamejűr˘ I, Asao Monz˘, Fujikawa Hachiz˘ II, Fujikawa Sango, Hanagiri Tomimatsu I, Mimasu Daigor˘ II, Mimasu Tokujir˘ I, Mihogi Gizaemon II, Nakamura Jiroza II, Nakamura Jűz˘ II, Nakamura Ky˘jűr˘ II, Nakamura Noshio II, Nakamura Tomijűr˘ I, Nakayama Bunshichi I, Nakayama Ihachi I, Nakayama Raisuke I, Onoe Kikugor˘ I, Onoe Shinshichi I, Otowa Jiroza II, Sawamura Kamegiku (?), Sawamura Kunitar˘ I, Shibazaki Rinzaemon II, Yamashina Jinkichi II, Yamamoto Giemon, Yamashita Kamenoj˘ IV, Yamashita Kinsaku II, Yamashita Shungor˘, Yamashita Yaoz˘ I and Yoshizawa Iroha I.

    In Japanese: 翠釜亭戯画譜

    Suimon
     

    A watergate; a floodgate; a sluice.

    In Japanese: 水門

    Suisha
     

    A wooden water wheel.

    In Japanese: 水車

    Suitengű
     

    Shint˘ shrines at which women pray for conception and safe birth. The most famous one is in T˘ky˘ in the district of Nihonbashi Kakigarach˘, where you can still capture the atmosphere of shitamachi [more details in Japanese].

    In Japanese: 水天宮

    Sukerokumono
     

    Kabuki or puppet dramas whose main characters are Sukeroku and his lover the courtesan Agemaki. Based on a real shinjű story, committed in ďsaka by the otokodate Yorozuya Sukeroku and his lover the Shinmachi courtesan ďgiya Agemaki. Sukeroku became an Edo character from 1713, named Hanakawado Sukeroku and his lover became the Yoshiwara courtesan Miuraya Agemaki ("Sukeroku").

    In Japanese: 助六物

    Sumidagawa
     

    The Sumida River, which flows through eastern T˘ky˘ for almost 27 kilometers, under 26 bridges spaced at about one bridge per kilometer. From olden times the river has been an integral part of the lives of residents, providing water for daily living and for agriculture, as well as serving as a transportation route for people and goods. It is an important backdrop for many Kabuki dramas or dances [more details].

    In Japanese: 隅田川

    Sumidagawamono
     

    Dances or dramas, which are related to the legend of the Ky˘to boy Yoshida Umewakamaru, who was kidnapped by slave traders and died in Edo along the Sumida River. The most famous one is the dance-drama "Sumidagawa".

    In Japanese: 隅田川物

    Sumida K˘en
     

    The Sumida Park (k˘en means park in Japanese) is a riverside park in Asakusa, which stretches along both sides of the Sumida River for several hundred meters. In spring it becomes a popular cherry blossom viewing spot (more than 700 cherry trees!), while on the last Saturday of July it becomes the site of the Sumida River Firework [more details in Japanese].

    In Japanese: 隅田公園

    Sumiyoshi Odori
     

    Lively folk dances popularized by buddhist priests and travelling bonzes as a means of propagating their religion. This expression comes from the Sumiyoshi Shrine in ďsaka, where such dances originated from.

    In Japanese: 住吉踊

    Sumiyoshi Taisha
     

    Sumiyoshi Grand Shrine is a Shint˘ shrine in the Sumiyoshi district in the heart of the city of ďsaka. It is the main shrine of all the Sumiyoshi shrines in Japan [more details].

    In Japanese: 住吉大社

    Sum˘
     

    Japanese traditional wrestling.

    In Japanese: 相撲 (角力)

    Sum˘mono
     

    Kabuki or puppet dramas whose main characters are sum˘tori. The most famous ones are "Futatsu Ch˘ch˘ Kuruwa Nikki" and "Sekitori Senry˘ Nobori".

    In Japanese: 相撲物 (角力物)

    Sum˘tori
     

    Sum˘ wrestler.

    In Japanese: 相撲取り

    Sunshű
     

    Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the central part of the current prefecture of Shizuoka. It was also called Suruga.

    In Japanese: 駿州

    Su˘
     

    The su˘ is a formal dress worn by samurai and daimy˘ which is worn over an inner kimono.

    In Japanese: 素襖

    SűpÔ Kabuki
     

    Super Kabuki. A new genre, created by the star Ichikawa Ennosuke III, which makes full use of the newest techniques, spectacular costumes, synthesizer sound effects and laser lighting, while incorporating some elements of Kabuki. Super Kabuki uses modern language scripts, which are written by modern playwrights. The plays have proved tremendously popular and are becoming a core element of new-style Kabuki. Ichikawa Ennosuke has said that "The future of Kabuki should be in trying to please the public, just as Okuni did when she started it as a popular art for commoners".

    Here is the list of Super Kabuki dramas:

    Title (in English) Premiere Title (in Japanese)
    Yamato Takeru February 1986 ヤマトタケル
    Ryű˘ March 1989 リューオー
    Oguri April 1991 オグリ
    Hakkenden April 1993 八犬伝
    Kaguya April 1996 カグヤ
    ďkuninushi April 1997 オオクニヌシ
    Shin Sangokushi April 1999 新・三国志
    Shin Sangokushi II April 2001 新・三国志Ⅱ~孔明編~
    Shin Sangokushi III March 2003 新・三国志Ⅲ~完結編~

    In Japanese: スーパー歌舞伎

    Suppon
     

    Trap door on the hanamichi, located at the shichi-san, used for the apparition of supernatural creatures.

    In Japanese:

    Suruga
     

    Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the central part of the current prefecture of Shizuoka. It was also called Sunshű.

    In Japanese: 駿河

    Surugawan
     

    The Suruga Bay. Located on the Pacific coast of Honshű in Shizuoka Prefecture [more details].

    In Japanese: JPN

    Sushi
     

    One of the most famous Japanese delicacies. A slice of raw fish or shellfish on a small ball of cold rice.

    In Japanese: (寿司)

    Sushiya
     

    A Sushi shop or a Sushi restaurant.

    In Japanese: 鮨屋

    Susuki
     

    Eulalia. A long grass associated with autumn.

    In Japanese:

    Suzakumon
     

    The Suzaku Gate. This gate was the main one built in the center of south end of the imperial palaces in the Japanese ancient capitals (Kashihara, Nara or Ky˘to). [more details].

    In Japanese: 朱雀門

    Suwa My˘jin
     

    The Shint˘ God of War.

    In Japanese: 諏訪明神

    Suwa Taisha
     

    A 1200 years old Shint˘ shrine in Nagano prefecture, which is the center of numerous shrines spread throughout Japan. Several important Gods are worshipped there. The God of Battles, Suwa My˘jin, used to be worshipped there as well [more details].

    In Japanese: 諏訪大社

    Tabi Shibai
     

    Travelling Kabuki troupes.

    In Japanese: 旅芝居

    Tachibanaya
     

    Guild name (yag˘) for the actors Ichimura Kakitsu, Ichimura Manjir˘, Ichimura Tsuruz˘ and Ichimura Yoshigor˘.

    In Japanese: 橘屋

    Tachimawari
     

    Stylized fight scene. A "one against all" spectacular scene present in almost all the epic dramas. The most famous tachimawari are the final scenes of the dramas "Rampei Monogurui" and "Sakaro" ("Hirakana Seisuiki"), and the opening scene of the classic "Shin Usuyuki Monogatari".

    In Japanese: 立回り

    Tachiyaku
     

    Actor specialized in male roles (also called tateyaku).

    In Japanese: 立役

    Taiheiki
     

    Chronicles of the Great Peace. An important Kabuki worlds (sekai). Its heroes are ďto-no-Miya, Kusunoki Masashige, the Nitta brothers and ďmori Hikoshichi.

    In Japanese: 太平記

    Taika no Kaishin
     

    The Taika coup d'etat in 645. The Emperor Tenchi and his loyal minister Fujiwara no Kamatari succeeded in destroying the wicked Soga no Iruka, who tried to take over the Imperial power. The classic "Imoseyama Onna Teikin" is based on this story.

    In Japanese: 大化の改新

    Taiko
     

    A Japanese traditional drum.

    In Japanese: 太鼓

    Taik˘ki
     

    Chronicle of the Taik˘ (honorific title for the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi). One of the three most important Kabuki worlds (sekai). Its heroes are the warlords who fought for the unification of Japan and ended the sengoku jidai period. The shogunate banned any reference in Kabuki plays to recent historical facts and the playwrights has to thinly disguise the names. Here is the list of the main characters belonging to the Taik˘ki world: Mashiba Hisayoshi/Konoshita T˘kichi (real name: Toyotomi Hideyoshi), Oda Harunaga (real name: Oda Nobunaga), Takechi Mitsuhide (real name: Akechi Mitsuhide) and Sat˘ Masakiyo (real name: Kat˘ Kiyomasa). Another important role is the king of thieves Ishikawa Goemon, sworn enemy of Mashiba Hisayoshi.

    In Japanese: 太閤記

    Taiko Mochi
     

    Male entertainer in the pleasure quarters.

    In Japanese: 幇間

    Taimadera
     

    The Taima Temple. A Buddhist temple in Nara, which was originally built in 612 [more details].

    In Japanese: 當麻寺

    Taira no Masakado
     

    Taira no Masakado (903 ~ 940) was a general of the Heian period, who led (and lost) a violent rebellion against the central government in Ky˘to. He became a legendary character after his death [more details].

    In Japanese: 平将門

    Taish˘
     

    An imperial era in Japanese history which started the 30th December 1912 and ended the 25th December 1926. The 2 eras before and after Taish˘ were Meiji and Sh˘wa.

    In Japanese: 大正

    Taishuka
     

    A heavy drinker.

    In Japanese: 大酒家

    Taiya
     

    The eve of a death anniversary.

    In Japanese: 逮夜

    Takaj˘
     

    A falconer.

    In Japanese: 鷹匠

    Takao
     

    The name of 11 generations of high-ranking (keisei) Yoshiwara courtesans. The second one, who was called Manji Takao, was killed in the 12th lunar month of 1659 by the daimy˘ Date Tsunamune on a pleasure boat (==> date s˘d˘).

    In Japanese: 高尾

    Takasagoya
     

    Guild name (yag˘) for the actor Nakamura Baigyoku.

    In Japanese: 高砂屋

    Takashimaya
     

    Guild name (yag˘) for the actors Ichikawa Sadanji and Ichikawa Unosuke [more details].

    In Japanese: 高島屋

    Takatsuki
     

    The traditional pedestal upon which the cup of sake is placed.

    In Japanese: 高杯

    Takechi Mitsuhide
     

    The Kabuki role name of Akechi Mitsuhide during the Edo period. Because of strict Shogunate censorship, the playwrights had to change the names. However, the changes were quite light and the audience had no problem to understand who was who.

    In Japanese: 武智光秀

    Takeda Katsuyori
     

    Takeda Katsuyori (1546~1582) was a Japanese daimy˘ of the Kai province, the son of Takeda Shingen [more details].

    In Japanese: 武田勝頼

    Takeda Shingen
     

    Takeda Shingen (1521~1573) was a Japanese daimy˘ of the Kai province with exceptional military prestige in the late stage of the Sengoku period [more details].

    In Japanese: 武田信玄

    Takeda Yakko
     

    Roles played by minor actors imitating some simple, crude and gaily-coloured Bunraku puppets. You can find Takeda Yakko in 2 plays in the current repertoire: "Dan no Ura Kabuto Gunki" and "Goto Samba".

    In Japanese: 竹田奴

    Takemotoza
     

    A ningy˘ j˘ruri theater founded in 1684 by Takemoto Gidayű in ďsaka in the D˘tombori district (west side). In 1705, the zamoto of this theater was Takeda Izumo I and the leading playwright was Chikamatsu Monzaemon I. Takemoto Gidayű, the founder of the Gidayű school died in 1714 and was replaced by his son Takemoto Masadayű I. It became common in puppet theaters, beginning in the Ky˘h˘ era (1716-1736), for a committee of authors to work together on the creation of each new play. Many famous playwrights worked at the Takemotoza: Chikamatsu Monzaemon I, Takeda Izumo I, Miyoshi Sh˘raku, Namiki Senryű I, Matsuda Bunk˘d˘, Hasegawa Senshi, ... The Takemotoza had its rival, the Toyotakeza, which was built by an ex-disciple of Takemoto Gidayű and the competition between the 2 theaters was fierce. The golden age of ningy˘ j˘ruri lasted up to the end of the H˘reki era. Slowly but surely, the Kabuki, which adapted to its genre all the puppet masterpieces, won back its popularity, which was eclipsed for a while by the puppet theater's one, and the ningy˘ j˘ruri went into a decline. The Takemotoza finally had to close down in 1767.

    In Japanese: 竹本座

    Takeyari
     

    A bamboo spear.

    In Japanese: 竹槍

    Tako
     

    An octopus.

    In Japanese:

    Tamaya
     

    A soap-bubbles peddler.

    In Japanese: 玉屋

    Tamba
     

    Old province in Japan, which grosso modo corresponds to the central part of Ky˘to Prefecture and the east-central part of Hy˘go Prefecture.

    In Japanese: 丹波

    Tameshigiri
     

    Tameshigiri is the Japanese art of target test cutting using a katana [more details].

    "The practice of performing cutting tests on swords was begun in the Kot˘ period, (prior to 1600), the tests were performed on various combinations of materials, i.e. bundles of bamboo laden with mud and tied, helmets, horn, iron of various degrees of hardness, and last but not least, the human body. The practice of using human bodies was begun as a means of crime control, for instance, the sentence for a convicted thief would probably be the loss of a hand or arm. The various strokes were given in relationship to the severity of the crime committed [...] Swords were tested only by licensed testers at official testing grounds. The results of the test along with the date and name of the tester were then inscribed, (mainly in gold), on the tang of the sword." (from samuraisword.com)

    In Japanese: 試斬 / 試し斬り / 試し切り / 試切

    Tanabata
     

    The Star Festival celebrated on July 7 in the city of Hiratsuka and August 7 in the city of Sendai. According to an old Chinese legend, it celebrates the reunion of the lovers Princess Orihime and Prince Hikoboshi, shining in the summer sky as Vega and Altair, who are separated the rest of the year by the milky way but can cross it and meet only for one night.

    In Japanese: 七夕

    Tanuki
     

    A badger. Tanuki in Japan are traditionally said to have the power to take the shape of humans, and in that form, they can play mischievously in order to trick human beings.

    In Japanese:

    Tanzaku
     

    A strip of paper for writing a poem on.

    In Japanese: 短冊

    Tanzen
     

    The young, chivalrous and refined customers of the tanzen buro; Stylization in Kabuki of the manners of the customers of the tanzen buro; A padded kimono worn over the yukata after a bath to protect from the cold (the name originates in tanzen buro).

    In Japanese: 丹前

    Tanzen buro
     

    Famous bathhouses with women attendants, built in Edo in the district of Kanda during the Kan'ei (1624~1644) era. The sexual license of these bathhouses was well-known and they received the order to close or move to the pleasure quarter in 1658.

    In Japanese: 丹前風呂

    Tateba
     

    During the Edo period, a tateba was a location on a highway (like the T˘kaid˘), where the travelers could take a rest. They were most of the times located mid-way between post-towns. Small clusters of tea-stalls or solitary houses, they were unofficially established by local people who took advantage of the needs of travelers who would stop to rest or have some refreshment before moving on to the next official post-town.

    In Japanese: 立場

    Tateonnagata
     

    Leading onnagata in a Kabuki theater or a troupe (also called tateoyama).

    In Japanese: 立女方 (立女形)

    Tatesakusha
     

    The head of the playwrights' room in a Kabuki theater during the Edo period or the Meiji era.

    In Japanese: 立作者

    Tateshi
     

    A choreographer of tachimawari.

    In Japanese: 立師

    Tatsu
     

    One of the twelve signs of the zodiac (jűnishi). Tatsu is the sign of the dragon.

    In Japanese:

    Tazaemonbashi
     

    A famous bridge over the D˘tombori canal in ďsaka. The name of the bridge comes from ďsaka Tazaemon, a name held by 6 generations of Kabuki nadai. The original bridge, which was built during the Edo period (unknown year), was a wooden bridge. It was completely reduced to ashes during the terrible American air raid of the night from the 13th to the 14th of March 1945, which destroyed the city of ďsaka. The current modern bridge was completed in 1958. It is 41.2 meters long and 4 meters wide.

    In Japanese: 太左衛門橋

    Tedai
     

    Shop employee whose rank is above Decchi and below Bant˘.

    In Japanese: 手代

    Tekomai
     

    The tekomai were young geisha walking in procession during a religious festival in a special costum. They led the mikoshi (portable shrine) while singing festival chant-like songs like the famous kiyari ondo. The tekomai costum is made up with a masculine trouser, a peony flower design on the right shoulder, a red paper lantern imprinted with their names in their left hand and a metal wand in their right hand. The word tekomai can be used either for the dancing/singing girls or for their costums.

    In Japanese: 手古舞

    Tengű
     

    A long-nosed goblin.

    In Japanese: 天狗

    Ten'ichib˘
     

    Born in 1699 in the Kishű province. His first name was Hannosuke. He became a yamabushi priest and called himself Ten'ichib˘. Financially supported by several influential r˘nin, he went to Edo in 1728 to claim that he was the son of the 8th Tokugawa Sh˘gun. His case was carefully examined by an Edo tribunal, which came to the conclusion that it was a fraud. As a consequence of this trial, Ten'ichib˘ was condemned to death and executed in 1729. This affair became the subject of several Kabuki plays, the most famous one being "Ten'ichib˘ ďoka Seidan".

    In Japanese: 天一坊

    Tenjiku Tokubei
     

    Tokubei (1612~1692?) was a Japanese adventurer and writer of the early 17th century, who journeyed in Southeast Asia. He was nicknamed "Tenjiku", which meant "India" in Japanese during the Edo period [more details].

    In Japanese: 天竺徳兵衛

    Tenjiku-tokubeimono
     

    Kabuki dramas whose main character is the sailor Tenjiku Tokubei.

    In Japanese: 天竺徳兵衛物

    Tenmei
     

    An imperial era in Japanese history which started the 2nd day of the 4th lunar month of 1781 (the 25th of April 1781 in the western calendar) and ended the 25th day of the 1st lunar month of 1789 (the 19th of February 1789 in the western calendar). The 2 eras before and after Tenmei were An'ei and Kansei.

    In Japanese: 天明

    Tenna
     

    An imperial era in Japanese history which started the 29th day of the 9th lunar month of 1681 (the 9th of November 1681 in the western calendar) and ended the 21st day of the 2nd lunar month of 1684 (the 5th of April 1684 in the western calendar). The 2 eras before and after Tenna were Enp˘ and J˘ky˘.

    In Japanese: 天和

    Tennin
     

    A celestial creature (equivalent of an angel) in Japanese legends.

    In Japanese: 天人

    Tenn˘jiya
     

    Guild name (yag˘) for the actor Nakamura Tomijűr˘ [more details].

    In Japanese: 天王寺屋

    Tennyo
     

    A celestial maiden.

    In Japanese: 天女

    Tenp˘
     

    An imperial era in Japanese history which started the 10th day of the 12th lunar month of its 1st year (the 23rd of January 1830 in the western calendar) and ended the 2nd day of the 12th lunar month of its 15th year (the 9th of January 1844 in the western calendar). The 2 eras before and after Tenp˘ were Bunsei and K˘ka.

    In Japanese: 天保

    Tenp˘ Rokkasen
     

    The title of a famous k˘dan created by Matsubayashi Hakuen II at the very beginning of the Meiji era. It can be translated as the Six Poets (rokkasen) of the Tenp˘ era. The story depicts in fact the lives and deeds of 6 characters who were more robbers than poets, some of them modeled after real people: the bogus priest K˘chiyama S˘shun, the "honest samurai" Kataoka Naojir˘, the kenkyaku Kaneko Ichinoj˘, the thieves gang boss Moritaya Seiz˘, the bakuto Kurayami no Ushimatsu and the Yoshiwara courtesan Michitose.

    The real K˘chiyama S˘shun was a servant in the administrative headquarters of the Tokugawa Shogunate. He worked as a cha b˘zu in Edo castle. He was fired in 1808 and quickly formed a gang of gamblers and thieves, engaging in extortion and other illegal activities. He was arrested in 1823 and died in custody. He became the key character of Matsubayashi Hakuen II's k˘dan. The centerpiece of the story is K˘chiyama's swindling of the Matsue Domain.

    In Japanese: 天保六花撰

    Tenran Kabuki
     

    A Kabuki program attended by the Emperor of Japan.

    In Japanese: 天覧歌舞伎

    Tenugui
     

    A thin Japanese hand towel made of cotton. Around 35x90 cm in size and printed with some patterns.

    In Japanese: 手拭い

    Tenshukaku
     

    A castle keep.

    In Japanese: 天守閣

    Teodori
     

    A colorful and lively section in a traditional dance in which the dancer dances without any stage props, on the rythm set by the musical ensemble, using refined hand movements.

    In Japanese: 手踊り

    Teoigoto
     

    The acting for a wounded hero, who is about to die on stage. The scene shows the suffering of the dying character and it is usually used for the final revelation of the truth and his/her true feelings. The two best examples are Gonta in "Sushiya" and Tamate Gozen in "Gapp˘".

    In Japanese: 手負事

    Tepp˘
     

    A rifle (musket).

    In Japanese: 鉄砲

    Tobae
     

    The tobae were comical and fantastic scroll pictures made by Toba S˘j˘, depicting animals (frogs, rabbits and monkeys) frolicking as if they were human. Toba S˘j˘ (1053~1140), also known as Kakuyű, was the 47th head priest of the Enryakuji Temple. The tobae are considered as the oldest form of manga and Toba S˘j˘ as the very first mangaka in Japanese History.

    In Japanese: 鳥羽絵

    Tobi
     

    A fireman in the Edo period.

    In Japanese:

    Tobigashira
     

    A fireman boss.

    In Japanese: 鳶頭

    T˘daiji
     

    One of the most famous Buddhist temples, located in the city of Nara [more details].

    In Japanese: 東大寺

    T˘dori
     

    Manager in a Kabuki theater in charge of all the backstage logistic.

    In Japanese: 頭取

    T˘eikai
     

    A Kabuki dance study group created in November 1922 by Onoe Eizabur˘ VII and Ichikawa Omez˘ IV. The first program is staged at the Ichimuraza in November 1922. The second program is staged at the Imperial Theater in March 1923. A third program was planned but the earthquake of September 1923, which completely destroyed T˘ky˘, ruined the project and put an end to the T˘eikai.

    In Japanese: 踏影会

    T˘fu
     

    Key element of Japanese traditional cuisine. Dried soybeans are soaked, ground and cooked. The thick puree mixture is then separated into soypulp and soymilk. The milk is then strained and a common, natural mineral, calcium sulphate, is added to the soymilk to curd it. The curds and whey are separated; the curds are then strained and pressed into cakes. It is said to be a healthful alternative to meat, eggs, cheese and other protein sources.

    In Japanese: 豆腐

    Togakushiyama
     

    Mount Togakushi (Togakushiyama in Japanese) is a rocky mountain located about 20 km northwest of Nagano city. It is 1,904 meters high. Since the 9th century, this sacred mountain became a place to perform the ascetic practices [more details].

    In Japanese: 戸隠山

    T˘ge
     

    A mountain pass.

    In Japanese:

    Tokugawa Ienobu
     

    Tokugawa Ienobu was born the 11th of June 1662. Grandson of Tokugawa Iemitsu, great-grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada and great-great grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu, he was the sixth Tokugawa Sh˘gun from 1709 to 1712. He died the 12th of November 1712 [more details].

    In Japanese: 徳川家宣

    Tokugawa Tsunatoyo
     

    Tokugawa Ienobu held the name of Tokugawa Tsunatoyo before becoming Sh˘gun.

    In Japanese: 徳川綱豊

    Toitagaeshi
     

    A stage trick (keren) used in Tsuruya Namboku IV's ghost play "T˘kaid˘ Yotsuya Kaidan": a hayagawari technique done by flipping a large wooden shutter to reveal the same actor in 2 different roles (Oiwa and Kohei). Two headless human-sized puppets are set on each side of the shutter and there are holes for the actors's head and hands.

    In Japanese: 戸板返し

    T˘kaid˘
     

    The T˘kaid˘ (literally the "Eastern Sea Route") was the most important communication road built by the Tokugawa Shogunate:

    "From Edo it led down the magnificent Pacific coast, where mountains meet suddenly with ocean to form some of the most fascinating natural scenery imaginable. Midway it turned inland, crossed through a range of majestic snow-capped mountains, and passed the beautiful Lake Biwa before reaching Ky˘to. This was one of a number of highways built by the Tokugawa government to facilitate administration. It was always kept in good condition, and stopping places, or "stages," were maintained at fifty-three points along the way." (Takahashi Seiichir˘ and Charles Terry in "And˘ Hiroshige")

    In Japanese: 東海道

    T˘kaid˘chű Hizakurige
     

    "T˘kaid˘chű Hizakurige" was the most famous novel of Jippensha Ikku. Abbreviated as "Hizakurige" and known in english as "Shank's Mare", it is a picaresque comic novel about the misadventures of two travelers on the T˘kaid˘, the main road between Edo and Ky˘to during the Edo period. The two main characters, traveling from Edo to Ky˘to on their pilgrimage to the Ise Shrine, are called Yajirobei and Kitahachi (often called Yaji and Kita). The book was written as a comical traveler's guide to the T˘kaid˘ Road. It details famous landmarks at each of the 53 post towns along the road, where the characters frequently find themselves in hilarious situations. The book was published in twelve parts between 1802 and 1822 [more details].

    In Japanese: 東海道中膝栗毛

    Tokiwazu
     

    One style of narrative music, originating in the Bungo style, created during the Enky˘ era by Tokiwazu Mojidayű I and used in some Kabuki dance-dramas. The current head of the Tokiwazu school is Tokiwazu Mojidayű IX.

    In Japanese: 常磐津

    Toko no Ma
     

    A very important alcove, used for exhibition of paintings or pots, in the main room of a traditional Japanese house.

    In Japanese: 床の間

    Tombo
     

    A somersault done by a minor actor during a spectacular tachimawari.

    In Japanese: とんぼ

    T˘mi
     

    Literally "a distant view". In the Kabuki world, this expression is used for children-actors who replace adult actors in the same role to create the illusion of a distant view. The two most famous examples are the end of the "Ninokuchi-mura" and the "Kumiuchi" scene of "Ichi-no-Tani Futaba Gunki".

    In Japanese: 遠見

    Tominomori Sukeemon
     

    Tomimori Sukeemon Masayori (1670~1703) was one of the 47 r˘nin of Ak˘ (Ak˘ R˘shi). Like the others, he committed seppuku the 4th of the 2nd lunar month of the 16th year of the Genroku era (the 20th of March 1703 in the western calendar). He was the hero of "Ohama Goten Tsunatoyo-ky˘", the fifth and the most famous play of Mayama Seika's cycle "Genroku Chűshingura".

    In Japanese: 富森助右衛門

    Tomimoto
     

    One style of narrative music, originating in the Tokiwazu style, created in 1748 by Tomimoto Buzennoj˘ I (Tomimoto Buzendayű I), a disciple of Tokiwazu Mojidayű I. This style was very popular when it was led by Tomimoto Buzendayű II (1754~1822) but it started to decline after his death. The last head of Tomimoto was Tomimoto Buzendayű XI (1929~1983) who tried to revive it in 1980. The school does not exist anymore but there are still some Tomimoto passages, which are sometimes performed by Tokiwazu ensembles.

    In Japanese: 富本

    Tomoe Gozen
     

    Tomoe Gozen (1157?ľ1247) was a late 12th century female samurai warrior, known for her bravery and strength. She was also said to be the concubine of Minamoto no Yoshinaka. She is believed to have fought in and survived the Genji/Heike wars [more details]. Did she really exist or was she a legend? The question is still unsolved.

    In Japanese: 巴御前

    Toneri
     

    Guards and attendants at the court before and during the Heian period. Sons or brothers of local chieftains, they worked as attendants in the Imperial residences or at palaces of high-ranking ministers.

    In Japanese: 舎人

    Tono
     

    A lord, a prince. When tono is put after a name, it is a very polite way to say "Mr." (if not polite, it is very ironic!).

    In Japanese: 殿

    Tora
     

    One of the twelve signs of the zodiac (jűnishi). Tora is the sign of the tiger.

    In Japanese:

    Tori
     

    One of the twelve signs of the zodiac (jűnishi). Tori is the sign of the cock.

    In Japanese:

    Torii
     

    A gateway, in either wood or stone, leading to a Shint˘ shrine. The 3 most famous Kabuki scenes with a huge torii in the scenery are "Kurumabiki" (the Yoshida shrine in Ky˘to), the first act of "Sonezaki Shinjű" (the Ikutama shrine in ďsaka) and the "Torii Mae" scene of "Yoshitsune Sembon Zakura" (the Inari Taisha shrine in Ky˘to).

    In Japanese: 鳥居

    Torikuma Shibai
     

    An ďsaka entrepreneur named Mitamura Kumakichi decided to rent in February 1885 the Harukiza, a small theater located in the district of Hong˘, which had no troupe since the end of 1884. Then, he brought a troupe of Kamigata actors to T˘ky˘ in order to perform at the Harukiza. The troupe was called Torikuma Shibai. Toriguma meant "bird and bear". The second character kuma (bear) came from the first name of the entrepreneur. The first character tori (bird) was related to a patron of Mitamura, who managed a birds shop. The initial troupe was made up of the actors Ichikawa Fukunoj˘, Onoe Sh˘ju, Mimasu Takegor˘, Jitsukawa Kikunosuke, Ichikawa Koinoj˘, Ichikawa Komasabur˘, Arashi Rinsh˘, Nakamura Takesabur˘ IV, Jitsukawa Koend˘ and Nakamura Komajaku. The first performance was staged in May 1885. The entrance fee to the Harukiza was the cheapest in T˘ky˘ and the Torikuma Shibai became popular. In September 1885, the actors Nakamura Shikaku I and Nakamura Umetar˘ joined the Torikuma Shibai. The final performance of the Torikuma Shibai was staged in March 1886 and the troupe disbanded.

    In Japanese: 鳥熊芝居

    Torimono
     

    A capture; an arrest.

    In Japanese: 捕物

    Torite
     

    A torite was a person who was in charge of catching criminals during the Edo period of Japan.

    In Japanese: 捕手

    T˘shi Ky˘gen
     

    Performance of a play in its entirety or one program made up of several acts of the same play.

    In Japanese: 通し狂言

    Toshima
     

    A middle-aged woman.

    In Japanese: 年増

    T˘t˘mi
     

    Old province in Japan, which grosso modo corresponds to today western Shizuoka Prefecture [more details]. It was also called Enshű.

    In Japanese: 遠江

    Totsuka-juku
     

    Totsuka-juku or Totsuka-shuku. The first (from Edo) of the 53 shukuba (post station) on the T˘kaid˘. 42 km from Edo and 449.2 km from Ky˘to [more details].

    In Japanese: 戸塚宿

    Toyotakeza
     

    A ningy˘ j˘ruri theater founded in 1703 by Toyotake Wakadayű in ďsaka in the D˘tombori district (east side). Toyotake Wakadayű, whose first name was Takemoto Uneme, was in fact an disciple of the Takemotoza master Takemoto Gidayű, who decided to leave his master and open his own theater. From 1707, the leading playwright at the Toyotakeza was Ki-no-Kaion, a rival of Chikamatsu Monzaemon I (Takemotoza). Others famous playwrights who worked at the Toyotakeza were Yasuda Abun, Namiki S˘suke and Nishizawa Icchű. With the decline of ningy˘ j˘ruri, the Toyotakeza had to close down in 1765, 2 years before its rival the Takemotoza. It was reopened several times without success and definitively closed before the end of the 18th century.

    In Japanese: 豊竹座

    Toyotomi Hideyoshi
     

    Toyotomi Hideyoshi was a preeminent warlord and ruler of Japan of the Sengoku period. He was the second great unifier of Japan after Oda Nobunaga. The period of their reigns was called Azuchi-Momoyama period [more details].

    In Japanese: 豊臣秀吉

    Tsubone
     

    A court lady.

    In Japanese:

    Tsuchiyama-juku
     

    Tsuchiyama-juku or Tsuchiyama-shuku. The 49th (from Edo) of the 53 shukuba (post station) on the T˘kaid˘. 434.7 km from Edo and 56.5 km from Ky˘to [more details].

    In Japanese: 土山宿

    Tsugaru Jamisen
     

    A genre of shamisen music originating in Aomori Prefecture in the northernmost area of the Japanese island of Honshű. It is today performed throughout Japan, though associations with the Tsugaru area of Aomori remain strong [more details].

    In Japanese: 津軽三味線

    Tsuji Banzuke
     

    Originally they were large, single sheet prints that appeared as versions of the pictorial billboards found at the front of a theatre. These banzuke were put up on the corners of streets in town and in areas bustling with people, and served as posters announcing productions. Some copies were also distributed to theatre patrons. Tsuji banzuke presented the programs and casts for each production. In Edo large, single sheet prints were used. On the upper right edge, the ˘nadai (Kabuki ky˘gen title) appeared, as on the billboards, while to the left were images of characters appearing with their respective actor crests, along with j˘jűri announcements. At the bottom, casts and the name of the theatre were shown. Over time, the number of actors appearing increased and the banzuke was extended transversely. In ďsaka large, vertical single sheet prints were usually used for tsuji banzuke, but few of these remain. These displayed the piece title at center, but no casts (from the Japanese Performing Arts Resource Center).

    In Japanese: 辻番付

    Tsuno Katsura
     

    The horned wig. A special wig used to portray the traditional Japanese demons (oni)

    In Japanese: 角鬘

    Tsurane
     

    A long declamatory speech spoken without a break on the hanamichi by an aragotoshi. Most tsurane occur during an actor's entrance and are delivered in a musical voice. It is full of puns and tongue twisters. The most famous tsurane are delivered by Kamakura Gongor˘ Kagemasa, Hanakawado Sukeroku and Soga Gor˘ Tokimune in "Shibaraku", "Sukeroku" and "Uir˘ Uri".

    In Japanese: 連ね

    Tsuru
     

    A crane.

    In Japanese:

    Tsuru Goroshi
     

    The Killing of a Crane.

    In Japanese: 鶴殺し

    Tsutsumi
     

    A river embankment.

    In Japanese:

    Tsuyu Tenjinsha
     

    Built more than 1100 years ago, the Tsuyu Tenjin Shrine is the protector of the Sonezaki and Umeda areas in ďsaka. The name of this shrine, Tsuyu Tenjinsha, is said to be derived from a word, tsuyu (dew) used to describe tears in the poem written by Sugawara no Michizane, who was deified after his death as Tenjin, the Shint˘ God of Scholarship (enshrined at the Tsuyu Tenjinsha). In the Genroku period (during the Edo period), this was a popular spot for the suicide of lovers destined never to be together. One of this shinjű occured there in the 4th lunar month of 1703. This tragedy inspired the playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon I to dramatize the incident and to write the famous love story "Sonezaki Shinjű". The pureness of love moved audiences to tears and the play became a sensation. The main character, the courtesan Tenmaya Ohatsu, especially left a vivid impression to many, and Tsuyu Tenjinsha began to be commonly called Ohatsu Tenjin [more details].

    In Japanese: 露天神社

    Tsuzumi
     

    A traditional hand drum.

    In Japanese:

    Tsuzura
     

    A wicker basket.

    In Japanese: 葛篭

     
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