KABUKI GLOSSARY (A~C)
You need a Japanese Language Kit installed within your system in order to be able to read the characters
   
Abe Munet˘
 

Abe no Munet˘ (1032 ~ 1108) was a warlord from the Abe clan. He fought with his father and his elder brother Sadat˘ during the Zenkunen war, which led to the downfall of his clan. His most notable action was his victory against the Genji forces at the Tonomi Palisade in 1061 [more details].

In Japanese: 安倍宗任

Abe Sadat˘
 

Abe no Sadat˘ (1019 ~ 1062) was a warlord from the Abe clan. He became the head of his in 1057 and was defeated during the Zenkunen war. He surrendered in 1062, was executed and his head was sent to Ky˘to [more details].

In Japanese: 安倍貞任

Abe Yoritoki
 

Abe no Yoritoki was a warlord and the head of the Abe clan during the late Heian period. He fought the Genji clan and died in 1057 during the Zenkunen war. He was the father of Abe no Sadat˘ and Abe no Munet˘ [more details].

In Japanese: 安倍頼時

Abe Seimei
 

Abe no Seimei (921 ~ 1005) was a famous court astrologer of the Heian period, calendars maker and spiritual adviser. He became a legendary character with mystical and magical powers in many stories [more details].

In Japanese: 安倍晴明

Abeshi
 

The Abe clan. It was one of the oldest of the major Japanese clans and their leaders ruled ďshű. They were defeated by the Genji clan at the end of the Zenkunen war [more details].

In Japanese: 安倍氏

Aburaya
 

An oil shop during the Edo period.

In Japanese: 油屋

Aburaya S˘d˘
 

A real event, which happened in Ise in the kuruwa of Furuichi the 9th of the 6th lunar month of 1796. A doctor named Magofuku Itsuki killed 2 people and maimed seven in the Aburaya pleasure house. Magofuku Itsuki killed himself the 19th of the 6th lunar month of 1796. This killing spree inspired the playwright Chikamatsu Tokuz˘ for his masterpiece "Ise Ondo Koi no Netaba".

In Japanese: 油屋騒動

Adachi-ga-Hara
 

The plain of Adachi. The place is now located in the city of Nihonmatsu in Fukushima Prefecture. This is the site of the legend of the Demon-hag (Onibaba in Japanese) of Adachi-ga-Hara. "Also described variously as an ôogressö and a ôgoblin,ö her story stands out as one of the most bloodcurdling legends in a country that has no shortage of grotesque, gruesome and barbarously chilling tales. Her dreadful deeds appear to go back around 1,260 years, to the late Nara Period (710~784). In those days her name is believed to have been Iwate, and she worked as a wet nurse for an aristocratic family in the Imperial capital. Then one day her high-born mistress fell ill, and Iwate was told by a seer that she could only be healed by consuming the raw liver of a pregnant woman. Ever the loyal servant, Iwate left her own small daughter to set off in search of a cure, eventually taking up residence in Japanĺs then remote and near-uncharted northeast. Years passed until, one autumn evening, a young couple with the wife heavily pregnant approached her hut and requested shelter for the night. That evening the wife went into labor and her husband dashed off to seek medication. Seizing her chance, Iwate slashed open the young womanĺs belly and began to remove her liver. In her death throes, the woman gasped, ôI came here searching for my mother, from whom Iĺd been separated in the capital.ö Then to her horror, Onibaba recognized a talisman she had given to her daughter in infancy, and at that moment realized she had murdered her own beloved offspring. Driven to madness, she turned into a full-fledged serial killer and cannibal. The exact number of her victims is not specified Ś nor likewise the circumstances of her death." (Mark Schreiber, "In search of the fearsome Onibaba" 2012). "Adachi-ga-Hara" is also the title of a famous N˘ drama which tells the story of a group of priests in search of a night's lodging in the wilds of Adachi-ga-Hara. They stop at the humble hut of a lone woman. She lets them in and, while spinning threads, speaks of her solitude. As she leaves to gather firewood, she tells the priest not to look into her inner room. His curiosity being aroused, a servant of the priests looks in the inner room and finds human bones and rotting corpses. The old woman returns in rage, revealing her true identity as a demon. Through prayers, the priests are able to quell her anger. In Kabuki, the Demon-hag of Adachi-ga-Hara is the main character of the dance-drama "Kurozuka". The old woman Iwate is also an important character in the 4th act of "ďshű Adachi-ga-Hara".

In Japanese: 安達原

Adauchi
 

Revenge; vengeance. The main thema of many Kabuki plays. The most famous one is "Kanadehon Chűshingura", based on the true story of the revenge of 47 masterless samurais against the villain responsible for the death of their master. Synonym: katakiuchi.

In Japanese: 仇討

Adauchimono
 

Adauchimono is a subgenre of Kabuki or puppet drama featuring a samurai revenge-killing vendetta (adauchi). The best examples are the sogamono based on the Soga Brothers vendetta. Synonim: katakiuchimono.

In Japanese: 仇討物

Agemaku
 

Permanent curtain located at the entrance of the hanamichi. There is also sometimes, depending on the production, a temporary agemaku to allow entrance from the kamite.

In Japanese: 揚幕

Ageya
 

House of assignation in the pleasure quarters.

In Japanese: 揚屋

Ah˘
 

A fool; an idiot. The typical role for a d˘kegata at the end of the 17th century or the first half of the 18th century.

In Japanese: 阿呆

Aibara
 

When two heroes commit seppuku at the same time, without preliminary consultation.

In Japanese: 合腹

Akabane Genz˘
 

Akabane Genz˘ Shigekata (1669~1703) was one of the 47 r˘nin of Ak˘ (Ak˘ R˘shi). Like the others, he committed seppuku the 4th of the 2nd lunar month of the 16th year of the Genroku era (the 20th of March 1703 in the western calendar).

In Japanese: 赤埴源蔵

Akahime
 

Literally the Red Princess. "The standard costume for hime (princesses) is a furisode (long-sleeved kimono) with matching uchikake (long outer garment) embroidered with various patterns such as the flowers of the four seasons, the shapes of clouds, or fans scattered on running water, using gold and silver threads on red fabric for both layers of the costume. This costume set is called akahime, which has also become the common name of the princess role. Red color represents the cuteness and innocence of the princess." (from Invitation to Kabuki)

In Japanese: 赤姫

Akattsura
 

A red-faced villain in jidaimono. Stupid but strong, he is usually the follower of a smarter and more powerful evil lord.

In Japanese: 赤っ面

Akechi Mitsuhide
 

Akechi Mitsuhide (1528~1582) was a general who lived during the Sengoku period of Feudal Japan. Mitsuhide served the daimy˘ Oda Nobunaga but he finally betrayed his lord in 1582. He was killed after his defeat at the Battle of Yamazaki. He became, under the thinly disguised name of Takechi Mitsuhide, the hero of many Taik˘ki-related Kabuki dramas [more details].

In Japanese: 明智光秀

Aki
 

Autumn in Japanese.

In Japanese:

Ak˘
 

Ak˘ was little castle town in the Banshű province. Its modern name is Banshű-Ak˘.

In Japanese: 赤穂

Akogi
 

"Akogi" is a famous drama. Akogi Bay was in the sacred domain of the Ise Shrine where fishing was prohibited. In this drama, the ghost of a fisherman who had been put to death by drowning for fish poaching in Akogi Bay tells the story of his agony [more details].

In Japanese: 阿漕

Akogi-ga-Ura
 

The Akogi Bay. A bay which is near the city of Tsu or the Grand Shrine of Ise on Ise Bay. Just off Futami-ga-Ura.

In Japanese: 阿漕浦

Ak˘ Gishi
 

Literally "the Royal Retainers from Ak˘" (==> ak˘ r˘shi).

In Japanese: 赤穂義士

Ak˘ R˘shi
 

Literally "the Masterless Samurai from Ak˘". This expression is used for the series of events related to the vendetta of the 47 masterless samurai from Ak˘. On the 14th day of the 3rd lunar month of the 14th year of the Genroku era (the 21st of April 1701 in the western calendar), Asano Takumi-no-Kami Naganori, the young daimy˘ of the castle town of Ak˘, attacked Kira K˘zukenosuke, a high Sh˘gunal official who bullied him during a ceremony at the Sh˘gun's palace. The Sh˘gun was furious and Asano was forced to commit seppuku that very day and his domain confiscated. On the 14th day of the 12th lunar month of the 15th year of the Genroku era (the 30th of January 1703 in the western calendar) and the early morning of the following day, forty-seven of Asano's retainers avenged his death by attacking and killing Kira and immediately became heroes showing that even after a century of peace, the samurai value of loyalty was not yet dead. In 1748, the puppet play "Kanadehon Chűshingura" appeared and since that time has been the single most popular play in all Japanese theatre. The names of the original characters were changed due to censorship and all kinds of incidents created, but still, as the history of the original event and the portrait of the suffering of the people around the event, it provides vivid human drama that is alive and vibrant even today.
{adapted from a text published in the Earphone Guide website}

In Japanese: 赤穂浪士

Akuba
 

An evil middle-aged woman in sewamono drama, who indulges in extortion, blackmail or murder. She is usually a clever person, who can bluff, fight and swindle.

In Japanese: 悪婆

Akutar˘
 

Literally a bad boy. This is also the title of a famous matsubamemono ("Akutar˘").

In Japanese: 悪太郎

Ama
 

A nun.

In Japanese:

Ama Midai
 

The wife of a Sh˘gun or an equivalently high-ranking minister. It is an abbreviation of ama midaidokoro.

In Japanese: 尼御台

Ama Midaidokoro
 

==> ama midai.

In Japanese: 尼御台所

Ame
 

The traditional Japanese starch-jelly candy.

In Japanese:

Ami Uchi
 

Net fishing; fishing with a net; a net fisherman.

In Japanese: 網打ち

An'ei
 

An imperial era in Japanese history which started the 16th day of the 11th lunar month of 1772 (the 10th of December 1772 in the western calendar) and ended the 2nd day of the 4th lunar month of 1781 (the 25th of April 1781 in the western calendar). The 2 eras before and after An'ei were Meiwa and Tenmei.

In Japanese: 安永

Anma
 

A masseur.

In Japanese: 按摩

Ansei
 

An imperial era in Japanese history which started the 27th day of the 11th lunar month of the 7th year of the Kaei era (the 15th of January 1855 in the western calendar) and ended the 18th day of the 3rd lunar month of 1860 (the 8th of April 1860 in the western calendar). The 2 eras before and after Ansei were Kaei and Man'en.

In Japanese: 安政

Anshitsu
 

An hermit's retreat.

In Japanese: 庵室

Aragoto
 

The expression aragoto is an abbreviation of aramushagoto, which means literally "the reckless warrior matter". This is in fact a Kabuki bombastic style exagerrating all the aspects of the role (acting, wig, make-up (kumadori), costumes, dialogues, oversized swords) to portray valiant warriors, fierce gods or demons. This style was created in Edo by Ichikawa Danjűr˘ I and is considered a "familly art" for this line of actors. It is the opposite style of the soft wagoto created by Sakata T˘jűr˘ I in Kamigata.

In Japanese: 荒事

Aragotoshi
 

Tachiyaku actor performing in the aragoto style.

In Japanese: 荒事師

Arai Kageyu
 

Another name of Arai Hakuseki.

In Japanese: 新井勘解由

Arai Hakuseki
 

Arai Hakuseki (1657~1725), also called Arai Kageyu, was a Confucianist, scholar-bureaucrat, academic, administrator, writer and politician in Japan during the middle of the Edo Period, who advised the Sh˘gun Tokugawa Ienobu [more details].

In Japanese: 新井白石

Arimashi
 

The Arima clan. They ruled the Kurume Domain in Chikugo from the beginning of the 1600s to the beginning of the 1870s.

In Japanese: 有馬氏

Asagao
 

The morning-glory.

In Japanese: 朝顔

Asakusa
 

Asakusa is a famous and popular district of Edo/T˘ky˘.

In Japanese: 浅草

Asazuma Bune
 

A boat used by "floating" prostitutes to do their business.

In Japanese: 浅妻船

Ashiby˘shi
 

A technique used by a Kabuki dancer to beat time by stamping the stage with his foot.

In Japanese: 足拍子

Ashigaru
 

The ashigaru, a foot soldier, is the lowest-ranking samurai.

In Japanese: 足軽

Ashű
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to prefecture of Tokushima. It was also called Awa.

In Japanese: 阿州

Asobue to Awase
 

A series of prints made by Utagawa Toyokuni III in 1852 and associated to the 12 year-marking Chinese zodiacal signs.

In Japanese: 擬絵当合

Atariyaku
 

A successful role for a Kabuki actor.

In Japanese: 当たり役

Awa
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to prefecture of Tokushima. It was also called Ashű.

In Japanese: 阿波

Awa Mochi
 

A traditional Japanese millet cake.

In Japanese: 粟餅

Awataguchi
 

A famous execution ground near Ky˘to.

In Japanese: 粟田口

Azuchi-Momoyama Jidai
 

The Azuchi-Momoyama period, which started in 1573 with the first major victories of Oda Nobunaga and ended in 1603 with the fall of the Toyotomi clan, defeated by the powerful Tokugawa Ieyasu. Azuchi and Momoyama were the names of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi castles.

In Japanese: 安土桃山時代

Azuma
 

Old synonym for the city of Edo.

In Japanese: 吾妻

Azuma-ryű
 

The Azuma school of Buy˘, which was created by the actor Azuma T˘z˘ II during the Meiwa/An'ei eras. The current head of the Azuma-ryű is the female master of dance Azuma Tokuya [more details].

In Japanese: 吾妻流

Azuma-yojibeimono
 

Kabuki or puppet dramas whose main characters are the courtesan Azuma and her lover Yamazaki Yojibei, who tries to ransom Azuma. In some dramas, Azuma's lover is named Yamazaki Yogor˘. The two most famous plays are "Nebiki no Kadomatsu" and "Futatsu Ch˘ch˘ Kuruwa Nikki".

In Japanese: 吾妻与次兵衛物

Badarai
 

A lacquer tub used to wash horses' legs.

In Japanese: 馬盥

Bakufu
 

Shogunate. Term used to designate the Sh˘gunal administration during the Kamakura, Muromachi and Edo periods. This word came from Chinese, his original meaning was "office under tent" and it was used for the headquarters of a general in expedition. The warrior Minamoto Yoritomo created the first bakufu in Kamakura in 1192, called Kamakura Bakufu, which collapsed in 1333. The second one, which was created by Ashikaga Takauji in Ky˘to in 1336, was called Muromachi Bakufu or Ashikaga Bakufu and collapsed in 1573. The third one, which was created by Tokugawa Ieyasu in Edo in 1603, was called Edo Bakufu or Tokugawa Bakufu and collapsed in 1868.

In Japanese: 幕府

Bakuto
 

A gambler.

In Japanese: 博徒

Bamen
 

A scene in a play.

In Japanese: 場面

Bangoya
 

A watchman hut.

In Japanese: 番小屋

Banshű
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the southern and western parts of the prefecture of Hy˘g˘. It was also called Harima.

In Japanese: 播州

Bant˘
 

A head clerk at a mercantile establishment.

In Japanese: 番頭

Banzui-ch˘beimono
 

Kabuki dramas whose main character is the Edo otokodate Banzui Ch˘bei (1622?~1657?). He is often associated with another famous character named Shirai Gompachi. Both characters really existed but they never really met.

In Japanese: 幡随長兵衛物

Banzuke
 

A playbill.

In Japanese: 番付

Bent˘
 

A Japanese lunch box.

In Japanese: 弁当

Betsumei
 

An alias for an actor. A stage name which is not an official one but is quite often used inside the Kabuki world.

In Japanese: 別名

Bett˘
 

The priest holding the supreme power over administration of large temples was called bett˘.

In Japanese: 別当

Bingo
 

Old province on the inland sea side of western Japan, which grosso modo corresponds to the Eastern part of the Hiroshima prefecture [more details]. It was also called Bishű.

In Japanese: 備後

Bishű
 

Old province on the inland sea side of western Japan, which grosso modo corresponds to the Eastern part of the Hiroshima prefecture [more details]. It was also called Bingo.

In Japanese: 備州

Biwa
 

Traditional Japanese Lute.

In Japanese: 琵琶

Biwako
 

Lake Biwa. Japan largest lake (235 kilometers in circumference), located in Shiga prefecture and close to the city of Ky˘to. Its name comes from its biwa shape.

In Japanese: 琵琶湖

Bizenza
 

A ningy˘ j˘ruri theater founded during the Kanbun by Sugiyama Bizennoj˘ in Edo in the district of Sakai-ch˘ (the theaters district in Edo). It was active up to the 1680s. It was taken over and managed by Toyotake Bizennoj˘ from the end of the 1730s to the Tenmei era.

In Japanese: 肥前座

Bon
 

Bon (also called Obon) is a Japanese Buddhist summer custom to honor the spirits of one's ancestors. This Buddhist-Confucian custom has evolved into a family reunion holiday during which people return to ancestral family places and visit and clean their ancestors' graves, and when the spirits of ancestors are supposed to revisit the household altars. It traditionally includes popular dances known as bon odori [more details].

In Japanese:

Bon Ky˘gen
 

Summer play. A summer Kabuki production, which was staged in July or August without the major actors of the troupe. In Edo, it was also a custom to stage kaidanmono as bon ky˘gen.

In Japanese: 盆狂言

Bon Odori
 

The traditional popular dances performed during the Bon festival.

In Japanese: 盆踊り

Boshin Sens˘
 

The Boshin War. This war, the "War of the Year of the Dragon", was a civil war in Japan, fought from 1868 to 1869 between forces of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and those seeking to return political power to the imperial court [more details].

In Japanese: 戊辰戦争

Bud˘goto
 

Roles or things related to the warrior class.

In Japanese: 武道事

Bukkaeri
 

A quick costum-change technique used to reveal the true identity of a character. The upper half inside part of the costum is pulled down by a stage assistant to cover the lower half outside part. Its pattern matches the one of the new upper half costum revealed by the change, creating the illusion of a real costum change.

In Japanese: 打っ返り

Bunka
 

In Japanese history, the Bunka period is an imperial era which started the 11th day of the 2nd lunar month of 1804 (the 22nd of March 1804 in the western calendar) and ended the 22nd day of the 4th lunar month of 1818 (the 26th of May 1818 in the western calendar). The 2 eras before and after Bunka were Ky˘wa and Bunsei.

In Japanese: 文化

Bunka K˘r˘sha
 

A person who has made outstanding culture contributions in Japan. This title is awarded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

In Japanese: 文化功労者

Bunkyű
 

An imperial era in Japanese history which started the 19th day of the 2nd lunar month of 1861 (the 29th of March 1861 in the western calendar) and ended the 20th day of the 2nd lunar month of 1864 (the 27th of March 1864 in the western calendar). The 2 eras before and after Bunkyű were Man'en and Genji.

In Japanese: 文久

Bunraku
 

Popular expression used to designate the traditional puppet theater (ningy˘ j˘ruri). This word came from an ďsaka theater called Bunrakuza.

In Japanese: 文楽

Bunsei
 

In Japanese history, the Bunsei period is an imperial era which started the 22nd day of the 4th lunar month of 1818 (the 26th of May 1818 in the western calendar) and ended the 10th day of the 12th lunar month of its 13th year (the 23rd of January 1830 in the western calendar). The 2 eras before and after Bunka were Bunka and Tenp˘.

In Japanese: 文政

Bushi
 

A samurai; a warrior.

In Japanese: 武士

Butai
 

A theater stage.

In Japanese: 舞台

Buy˘
 

Japanese traditional dance [more details].

In Japanese: 舞踊

Buzen
 

Old province in northern Kyűshű, which grosso modo corresponds to both Fukuoka and ďita prefectures [more details]. It was also called H˘shű.

In Japanese: 豊前

Cha B˘zu
 

A servant in the administrative headquarters of the Tokugawa shogunate during the Edo period. The function of a cha b˘zu was to oversee the provision of personal service and serving of meals, and to run errands, for high-ranking officials like the Sh˘gun or daimy˘ at Edo castle.

In Japanese: 茶坊主

Chawan'ya
 

A chinaware dealer.

In Japanese: 茶碗屋

Chaya
 

Tea house.

In Japanese: 茶屋

Chazuke
 

A simple Japanese dish made by pouring green tea or hot water over cooked rice [more details].

In Japanese: 茶漬け

Chichimoraimono
 

Kabuki drama or dance whose main thema is a husband, who has lost his wife and has to find some milk for his child. The first chichimoraimono was "Hana Fubuki Koi no Tekagami".

In Japanese: 乳貰物

Chijimi
 

A cotton crepe fabric used for summer kimono.

In Japanese:

Chikamatsu Kanroku
 

Chikamatsu Kanroku Yukishige (1670~1703) was one of the 47 r˘nin of Ak˘ (Ak˘ R˘shi). Like the others, he committed seppuku the 4th of the 2nd lunar month of the 16th year of the Genroku era (the 20th of March 1703 in the western calendar).

In Japanese: 近松勘六

Chikamatsuza
 

A Kamigata Kabuki troupe founded in 1982 by Nakamura Senjaku II to study and revive Chikamatsu Monzaemon's dramas.

In Japanese: 近松座

Chikamatsu San Kantsűmono
 

The three kantsűmono of Chikamatsu Monzaemon: "Nami no Tsuzumi", "Osan Mohei" and "Yari no Gonza".

In Japanese: 近松三姦通物

Chikubushima
 

Chikubu Island. An island in the northern side of Lake Biwa, which is known as the "Island of the Gods". It is the 30th stop on the 33 Temple Pilgrimage route of the Western Country, and is home to H˘gonji Temple and Tsukubusuma Shrine [more details].

In Japanese: 竹生島

Chikugo
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the southern part of the current Fukuoka Prefecture in Kyűshű. It was also called Chikushű.

In Japanese: 筑後

Chikushű
 

Old province, which grosso modo corresponds to the southern part of the current Fukuoka Prefecture in Kyűshű. It was also called Chikugo.

In Japanese: 筑州

Chirashi
 

It literally means "to scatter". The chirashi is a section with a faster tempo, which is the start of the final of a traditional dance.

In Japanese: 散らし

Chiryű Jinja
 

The Chiryű Shrine, located in Chiryű. This famous shrine has a long history of more than 1000 years. During the Edo period, it was one of the three great shrines along the T˘kaid˘. The shrine used to sell an amulet against bites of poisonous snakes for the T˘kaid˘ travelers.

In Japanese: 知立神社

Chiryű-juku
 

Chiryű-juku or Chiryű-shuku. Chiryű can also be read Chirifu. The 39th (from Edo) of the 53 shukuba (post station) on the T˘kaid˘. 333.2 km from Edo and 158 km from Ky˘to [more details].

In Japanese: 池鯉鮒宿

Chiwata
 

Cotton dyed in red and used to simulate blood on a wounded body.

In Japanese: 血綿

Chobokure
 

A chobokure is a light form of narrative chanting performed by street musicians, who chant popular ditties while striking a small gong or bell.

In Japanese: ちょぼくれ

Chokibune
 

a chokibune was, during the Edo period, a long flat river boat used to transport people along Edo's waterways. The people, who went to visit the pleasure quarter of Yoshiwara, were also frequently using the chokibune to go there.

In Japanese: 猪牙舟

Chonmage
 

Traditional hairstyle for men during the Edo period: the hair on the top of the head was usually shaved, and the rest of the hair gathered together and tied in a topknot. This hairstyle is still used nowadays by sum˘ wrestler.

In Japanese: 丁髷

Chűj˘ Hime
 

Princess Chűj˘ (747?~775?), sometimes called the Japanese Cinderella, was said to be the daughter of the court noble Fujiwara no Toyonari. She escaped persecution at the hands of her evil stepmother by becoming a nun at the Taima Temple in Nara [more details].

In Japanese: 中将姫

Chűj˘-himemono
 

Kabuki or puppet dramas whose main character is Princess Chűj˘. There is still one in the current Kabuki repertoire: "Chűj˘ Hime".

In Japanese: 中将姫物

Chűnagon
 

A chűnagon was a counselor of the second rank in the Imperial court of Japan from the 7th century to the 19th century [more details].

In Japanese: 中納言

Chűnori
 

Flying on wires from the stage over the heads of the audience to the third floor of the theater. The star Ichikawa Ennosuke is the king of chűnori.

In Japanese: 宙乗り

 
Search this site powered by FreeFind
  Site map | Disclaimer
Contact | Main | Top | Updates | Actors | Plays | Playwrights | Programs | Links | FAQ | Glossary | Chronology | Illustrations | Prints | Characters | Derivatives | Theaters | Coming soon | News