JITSUKAWA ENJAKU I

Stage names:

Jitsukawa Enjaku I In Japanese
Onoe Baik˘ In Japanese
Nakamura Enjaku In Japanese
Jitsukawa Enjir˘ I In Japanese
Jitsukawa Enji In Japanese

Real name: Amaboshi Sh˘hachi

Guilds: Kawachiya, Izutsuya, Otowaya

Line number: SHODAI (I)

Poetry names: Sh˘gan, Sensha, Baishi

Existence: 1831 ~ 18 September 1885

Connections:

Masters: Jitsukawa Gakujűr˘ II, Nakamura Fukusuke I

Adoptive father: Onoe Kikugor˘ IV

Son: Jitsukawa Enjaku II

grandsons: Jitsukawa Enjaku III

Adopted son: Jitsukawa Enjir˘ II

Disciples: Nakamura Ganjir˘ I, Jitsukawa Sh˘ch˘, Jitsukawa Enzabur˘ IV, Jitsukawa Enzabur˘ V, Jitsukawa Shinshir˘

Family map: the Jitsukawa Clan

Career:

1831: born in ďsaka in the district of D˘tonbori. Son of a carpenter, he was adopted at the age of 3 by Kawachiya Sh˘bŕ, the owner of the Kawachiya shibai jaya located within the Chikugo no Shibai.

1838: he started his career as a disciple of the actor Jitsukawa Enzabur˘ I, who gave him the name of Jitsukawa Enji in 1840.

1841: Enji stops acting for a few years.

1844: he was back on stage and received the name of Jitsukawa Enjir˘.

1854: quarrel with Jitsukawa Enzabur˘ I. He left the Jitsukawa clan and became a travelling actor, nicknamed "Hadaka no Enji" ('Enji the naked').

10th lunar month of 1856: he settled in Edo and became disciple of Nakamura Fukusuke I, who gave him the name of Nakamura Enjaku.

1st lunar month of 1859: he was adopted by Onoe Kikugor˘ IV and received the name of Onoe Baik˘.

28th day of the 6th lunar month of 1860 [1]: his adoptive father Onoe Kikugor˘ IV died.

1861: he went back to ďsaka.

1862: his master Jitsukawa Enzabur˘ I forgave him and he was reintegrated in the Jitsukawa clan.

3rd lunar month of 1863: he took the name of Jitsukawa Enjaku I. Enjaku was in fact the haimy˘ used by both Jitsukawa Gakujűr˘ I and Jitsukawa Enzabur˘ I.

5th lunar month of 1866: Enjaku played at the Naka no Shibai the role of Danshichi Kurobŕ in the drama "Natsu Matsuri Naniwa Kagami"; the roles of Tokubŕ and Sabu were played by Nakamura Komanosuke V and Jitsukawa Gakujűr˘ II.

22nd day of the 2nd lunar month of 1867 [2]: his master Jitsukawa Gakujűr˘ II died in ďsaka.

9th lunar month of 1868: Enjaku played at the Kita-Horie Ichi-no-Gawa Shibai (ďsaka) the role of Abe no Munet˘ in the "Sodehagi Saimon" scene of the drama "ďshű Adachi-ga-Hara"; his stage partners were Nakamura S˘jűr˘ (Sodehagi), Arashi Hinasuke VI (Abe no Sadat˘) and Nakamura Kanjaku III (Hachiman Tar˘).

11th lunar month of 1868: Enjaku played at the Minamigawa no Shibai the role of Abe no Munet˘ in the "Sodehagi Saimon" scene of the drama "ďshű Adachi-ga-Hara" (same casting as the ďsaka performance).

1872: Enjaku became zagashira at the Chikugoza.

1st lunar month of 1872: Enjaku played at the Chikugo no Shibai the role of Hanzawa Rokur˘ in the drama "Dan no Ura Kabuto Gunki"; his stage partners were ďtani Tomoemon V (Akoya), Arashi Hinasuke VI (Shigetada) and Arashi Rikan IV (Iwanaga).

5th lunar month of 1872: Enjaku played at the Minamigawa no Shibai the role of Danshichi Kurobŕ in the drama "Natsu Matsuri Naniwa Kagami"; the roles of Tokubŕ and Sabu were played by ďtani Tomoemon V and Nakamura Shichigasuke.

29 August 1873: his adopted son Jitsukawa Enjir˘ II died.

October 1881: premiere at the Ebisuza of Katsu Genz˘ III's drama "Ogasawara Shorei no Oku no Te"; Enjaku played the roles of Okada Ry˘suke and Ogasawara T˘t˘mi-no-Kami [casting].

May 1883: Enjaku played at the Ebisuza (ďsaka) the role of Shunkan in the drama "Heike Nyogo no Shima"; his stage partners were Arashi Kitsusabur˘ IV (Chidori), Jitsukawa Enzabur˘ III (Tanzaemon), Arashi Rish˘ II (Naritsune) and Ichikawa Aragor˘ III (Senoo Tar˘).

October 1884: Enjaku played at the Ebisuza (ďsaka) the roles of Yasuke and K˘emon in the drama "Tengajaya-mura"; his stage partners were Arashi Kitsusabur˘ IV (Iori), Nakamura Ganjir˘ I (Genjir˘), Arashi Rikan IV (Motoemon) and Ichikawa Aragor˘ III (T˘ma).

January 1885: Enjaku appeared on stage for the last time, at the Ebisuza (ďsaka), where he played the role of Tokugawa Yoshinobu in the drama "Shima Chidori Nami no Konohana".

18 September 1885: Enjaku died in ďsaka.

Comments:

Jitsukawa Enjaku I was a small man and his voice was not very good but he overcame it to become one of the most famous Kamigata tachiyaku actors of the Meiji era (along with Nakamura S˘jűr˘ and Arashi Rikan IV) and the founder of a great line of actors. His field of excellence was wagoto. He suffered a lot in his latter years because of lead poisoning, which crippled the use of his arms, but he kept on acting.

Jitsukawa Enjaku I's best roles: Kamiya Jihŕ ("Shinjű Ten no Amijima"), Kanaya Kingor˘ ("Kosan Kingor˘), Kan˘ Shirojir˘ ("Chichi Morai") and Sanni no goroshichi ("Kari no Tayori").

[1] The 28th day of the 6th lunar month of the 1st year of the Man'en era was the 14th of August 1860 in the western calendar.

[2] The 22nd day of the 2nd lunar month of the 3rd year of the Kei˘ era was the 27th of March 1867 in the western calendar.

Jitsukawa Enjaku I playing the role of Danshichi Kurobŕ in the drama "Natsu Matsuri Naniwa Kagami", which was staged in the 5th lunar month of 1872 in Ky˘to at the Minamigawa no Shibai (print made by Nakai Yoshitaki)

Print made by Utagawa Hironobu in 1866

Print made by Hasegawa Munehiro in 1867

The Onoe Baik˘ line of actors

The Jitsukawa Enjaku line of actors

 
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