ICHIKAWA DANJ█Rď IX

Stage names:

Ichikawa Danjűr˘ IX In Japanese
Kawarasaki Sansh˘ In Japanese
Kawarasaki Gonnosuke VII In Japanese
Kawarasaki Gonjűr˘ I In Japanese
Kawarasaki Ch˘jűr˘ III In Japanese

Other name:

Ichikawa Jukai II In Japanese

Real name: Horikoshi Hideshi

Guild: Naritaya, Yamazakiya [1], Tomoeya [1]

Line number: KUDAIME (IX)

Poetry names: Sansh˘, Jukai (2), Shisen, Danju

Existence: 1838 ~ 13 September 1903

Connection:

Great-great-great-great-grandfather: Ichikawa Danjűr˘ I

Great-great-great-grandfather: Ichikawa Ebiz˘ II (Danjűr˘ II)

Great-great-grandfather: Ichikawa Ebiz˘ III (Danjűr˘ IV)

Great-grandfather: Ichikawa Hakuen I (Danjűr˘ V)

Father: Ichikawa Danjűr˘ VII (Ebiz˘ V)

Brothers : Ichikawa Danjűr˘ VIII, Ichikawa Ebiz˘ VII, Ichikawa Ebiz˘ VIII, Ichikawa Komaz˘ VI, Ichikawa Saruz˘ I, Ichikawa K˘z˘

Adoptive father: Kawarasaki Gonnosuke VI

Son-in-laws: Ichikawa Sansh˘ V (Danjűr˘ X), Ichikawa Shinnosuke V

Daughters: Ichikawa Suisen II, Ichikawa Kyokubai II

Disciples: Ichikawa Monnosuke VI, Ichikawa Chűsha VII, Ichikawa Shinz˘ V, Ichikawa Gangyoku II, Ichikawa Raiz˘ V, Ichikawa Gonjűr˘, Ichikawa Sumiz˘ V, Ichikawa Saruz˘ III, Ichikawa Masusabur˘ III, Ichikawa Masuz˘ III, Ichikawa Kimitar˘, Ichikawa Dan'emon I, Ichikawa Dan'emon II, Ichikawa Sh˘z˘ III, Ichikawa Shinjűr˘ II, Ichikawa Shinjűr˘ III, Ichikawa Danshir˘ II, Ichikawa S˘zabur˘ VI, Ichikawa Hakotora II, Ichikawa Dansh˘ I

Granddaughter: Ichikawa Suisen III

Career:

1838 ~ 1844: born in Edo in the district of Sakai-ch˘. Fifth son of Ichikawa Danjűr˘ VII, his mother was not the legal wife of his father. He was adopted by Kawarasaki Gonnosuke VI, the head of the Kawarasakiza.

1st lunar month of 1845: he made his first appearance on stage, at the Kawarasakiza, where he received the name of Kawarasaki Ch˘jűr˘ III.

9th lunar month of 1852: Kawarasaki Ch˘jűr˘ III took the name of Kawarasaki Gonjűr˘ I, playing the role of Hatsushima Gor˘ in the drama "Ichi-no-Tani Futaba Gunki".

8th lunar month of 1854 [2]: his brother Ichikawa Danjűr˘ VIII committed suicide in ďsaka.

29th day of the 9th lunar month of 1855 [3]: his brother Ichikawa Saruz˘ I died.

2nd day of the 10th lunar month of 1855 [4]: the Ansei Edo Earthquake (Ansei Edo Jishin) ravaged Edo; the Kawarasakiza was completely destroyed. Gonjűr˘ moved to the Ichimuraza.

1st lunar month of 1857: premiere at the Ichimuraza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Nezumi Komon Haru no Shingata" (commonly called "Nezumi Koz˘"); Gonjűr˘ played the roles of Matsubaya Bunz˘, Ch˘kichi and Yonosuke [casting].

7th lunar month of 1857: premiere at the Ichimuraza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Ami Moy˘ T˘ro no Kikukiri" (commonly called "Kozaru Shichinosuke"); Gonjűr˘ played the roles of Ob˘ Kichisa and the priest Ky˘shin [casting].

3rd lunar month of 1858: premiere at the Ichimuraza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Edo Zakura Kiyomizu Seigen"; the nibanme of this drama was now entitled "Kurotegumi Kuruwa no Tatehiki" in the Kabuki repertoire (commonly called "Kurotegumi Sukeroku"); Gonjűr˘ played the roles of Ushiwaka Denji and Kinokuniya Bunzaemon [more details].

2nd lunar month of 1859: premiere at the Ichimuraza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Kosode Soga Azami no Ironui" (commonly called "Izayoi Seishin"); Gonjűr˘ played the role of the r˘nin Yaegaki Monz˘ [casting].

23rd day of the 3rd lunar month of 1859 [5]: his father Ichikawa Ebiz˘ V died.

7th lunar month of 1859: Gonjűr˘ plays for the first time the role of Musashib˘ Benkei in the drama "Kanjinch˘", which was staged at the Ichimuraza; the roles of Togashi and Yoshitsune were played by Ichikawa Kodanji IV and Iwai Kumesabur˘ III.

9th lunar month of 1859: premiere at the Ichimuraza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's Kiyomoto-based dance "Jitsugetsusei Chűya no Oriwake", commonly called "Ryűsei". The leading roles were played by Iwai Kumesabur˘ III, Ichikawa Kodanji IV and Gonjűr˘.

1st lunar month of 1860: premiere at the Ichimuraza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Sannin Kichisa Kuruwa no Hatsugai"; Gonjűr˘ played the role of Ob˘ Kichisa [casting].

3rd lunar month of 1860: premiere at the Ichimuraza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Kagamiyama Gonichi no Iwafuji"; Gonjűr˘ played the roles of Hasebe Tatewaki and Taga no Tairy˘ [casting].

7th lunar month of 1860: premiere at the Ichimuraza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Hachiman Matsuri Yomiya no Nigiwai" (commonly called "Chijimiya Shinsuke"); Gonjűr˘ played the role of Shinzabur˘ [casting].

3rd lunar month of 1862: premiere at the Ichimuraza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Aoto Z˘shi Hana no Nishikie" (commonly called "Shiranami Gonin Otoko"); Gonjűr˘ played the role of Tadanobu Rihei [casting].

23rd day of the 9th lunar month of 1868 [6]: his adoptive father Kawarasaki Gonnosuke VI was killed by a thief.

3rd lunar month of 1869: Kawarasaki Gonjűr˘ I took the name of Kawarasaki Gonnosuke VII at the Ichimuraza and became zagashira.

9th lunar month of 1869: premiere at the Ichimuraza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Momoyama Monogatari", commonly called "Jishin Kat˘" ("Earthquake Kat˘"); Gonnosuke played the leading role of Kat˘ Kiyomasa. This drama was a first experiment, which foreshadowed the katsureki plays.

10th lunar month of 1872: premiere at the Moritaza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's zangirimono "Tsuki no En Masu no Igaguri"; Gonnosuke played the role of Yosabur˘ [casting].

March 1873: premiere at the Murayamaza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Taiko no Oto Chiyű Sanryaku"; Gonnosuke played the roles of Sakai Saemon, Okabe Nagashige and Torii Tadamoto [casting].

September 1873: Kawarasaki Gonnosuke VII took the name of Kawarasaki Sansh˘.

July 1874: reopening of the Kawarasakiza; Kawarasaki Sansh˘ took the prestigious name of Ichikawa Danjűr˘ IX (not holden for 20 years) in his rebuilt family theater, playing the roles of Bingo no Sabur˘, Wada Masat˘ and Kusunoki Masanari in the drama "Shinbutai Iwao no Kusunoki". Premiere at the Kawarasakiza of Kawatake Kinsaku I's Nagauta-based dance-drama "Kotobuki Ninin Sh˘j˘"; Danjűr˘ played the role of a sh˘j˘ [more details].

13 July 1874: his brother Ichikawa Ebiz˘ VII died.

October 1874: premiere at the Kawarasakiza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Kumo no Ueno San'e no Sakumae"; Danjűr˘ played the role of K˘chiyama S˘shun [casting].

May 1875: revival at the Kawarasakiza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Kusunoki-ryű Hanami no Makuhari", which was entitled "Hanamidoki Yui no Makuhari"; Danjűr˘ played the roles of Matsudaira Izu-no-Kami and Yui Sh˘setsu [more details].

Spring 1875:: Danjűr˘, a talented actor but a poor zamoto, gave up the management of the Kawarasakiza and went on tour in the J˘shű and Yashű provinces.

October 1875: premiere at the Nakamuraza and the Shinboriza of Takeshiba Kinsaku I's drama "Minori no Aki Seish˘ Denki"; Danjűr˘ played the roles of Sat˘ Masakiyo and Kajiya Seikichi [more details].

October 1878: premiere at the Shintomiza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Jitsugetsusei Ky˘wa Seidan"; Danjűr˘ played the roles of Sasagawa K˘jűr˘, Nomura Kuranoshin (in reality thief Akatsuki Hoshiemon) and ďzakaya Kihachi (in reality the thief Akatsuki Hoshiemon) [casting].

February 1879: premiere at the Shintomiza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Ningen Banji Kane no Yo no Naka"; Danjűr˘ played the role of Keori Gor˘emon [casting].

16 July 1879: Danjűr˘ took part in the gala night at the Shintomiza in the honor of the General Ulysses S. Grant [more details].

March 1881: premiere at the Shintomiza of Kawatake Mokuami's masterpiece "Kumo ni Magou Ueno no Hatsuhana"; Danjűr˘ played the role of K˘chiyama S˘shun [casting].

June 1881: premiere at the Shintomiza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's jidaimono "Youchi Soga Kariba no Akebono" [casting]; Danjűr˘ played the roles of Soga Gor˘ Tokimune and Kud˘ Saemon Suketsune. Premiere in the same theater of Kawatake Shinshichi II's dance-drama "Tsuchi Gumo", which was staged to commemorate the 32nd anniversary (33rd memorial service) of late Onoe Kikugor˘ III; Danjűr˘ played the roles of a Ky˘gen performer and Gunnai [casting].

October 1881: premiere at the Harukiza of Kawatake Shinshichi II's drama "Kiwametsuki Banzui Ch˘bŕ"; Danjűr˘ played the role of Banzui Ch˘bŕ [casting].

November 1881: premiere at the Shintomiza of Kawatake Mokuami's zangirimono drama "Shima Chidori Tsuki no Shiranami"; Danjűr˘ played the role of Mochizuki Akira [casting].

November 1882: Danjűr˘ played at the Saruwakaza the role of Soga Gor˘ Tokimune in the bombastic "Ya-no-Ne" scene.

May 1883: Danjűr˘ played at the Ichimuraza the role of the deity Fud˘ My˘˘, an important symbol for the Naritaya guild, in the drama "Hashi Kuy˘ Bonji no Mongaku".

November 1884: premiere at the Saruwakaza of Kawatake Mokuami's katsureki drama "H˘j˘ Kudai Meika no Isaoshi"; Danjűr˘ played the role of H˘j˘ Takatoki [casting].

January 1885: two dances were staged at the Chitoseza, about to reopen in February 1885 with a new name. From the 4th to the 7th of January, two auspicious dances and a k˘j˘ with the troupe led by Danjűr˘ were staged. The sanbas˘ was staged with Ichikawa Sadanji I (Okina), Band˘ Kakitsu I (Senzai) and Onoe Kikugor˘ V (Sanbas˘). This was also the premiere of the Nagauta-based dance-drama "Tsuru Kame" [more details].

November 1885: premiere at the Shintomiza of Kawatake Mokuami's Nagauta-based matsubamemono "Funa Benkei"; Danjűr˘ played the roles of Shizuka Gozen and the spirit of Taira no Tomomori [casting].

12 November 1886: his brother Ichikawa Ebiz˘ VIII died.

26 April 1887: the emperor enjoyed Kabuki for the first time at the residence of Inoue Kaoru, the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The casting included the three leading stars Danjűr˘, Onoe Kikugor˘ V and Ichikawa Sadanji I.

October 1887: premiere at the Shintomiza of Kawatake Mokuami's matsubamemono "Momijigari"; Danjűr˘ played the roles of Princess Sarashina and the ogress of Mount Togakushi [casting].

November 1889: Danjűr˘ became zagashira at the newly-built Kabukiza.

July 1890: premiere at the Shintomiza of "Kiyomasa Seichűroku", a revised version of Kawatake Shinshichi III's 1875 drama "Minori no Aki Seish˘ Denki". It was part of a special 2-day gala program starring Danjűr˘; he played the roles of Kat˘ Kiyomasa and Tokugawa Ieyasu [more details]. He also played in this gala program the role of Soga Gor˘ Tokimune in the bombastic drama "Ya-no-Ne".

March 1891: premiere at the Kabukiza of Fukuchi ďchi's drama "Buyű no Homare Shusse Kagekiyo", a revised revival of Chikamatsu Monzaemon's jidaimono "Shusse Kagekiyo"; Danjűr˘ played the roles of Taira no Kagekiyo and the carpenter Rokuz˘ [casting].

October 1892: premiere at the Kabukiza of the matsubamemono "Su˘ Otoshi", starring Danjűr˘ and Nakamura Fukusuke IV in the roles of Tar˘kaja and the Princess.

March 1893: premiere at the Kabukiza of Fukuchi ďchi's Nagauta-based dance "Shunky˘ Kagami Jishi"; the roles of Yayoi and the spirit of the Lion were played by Danjűr˘; his two daughters played the roles of the butterflies.

November 1893: Danjűr˘ took part in the opening ceremony of the Meijiza [more details].

April 1897: premiere at the Kabukiza of Fukuchi ďchi's drama "Otokodate Harusame Gasa"; Danjűr˘ played the role of ďguchiya Jihŕ, later ďguchiya Gy˘u [more details].

October 1897: premiŔre of Fukuchi ďchi's drama "ďmori Hikoshichi" at the Meijiza; Danjűr˘ played the role of ďmori Hikoshichi [casting].

November 1897: Danjűr˘ played at the Kabukiza the role of Fujiwara no Shihei in "Shihei no Nana Warai", which was the second act of Namiki Gohachi's drama "Tenmangű Natane no Gokű" revised by Fukuchi ďchi.

April 1899: Danjűr˘ played for the last time the role of Musashib˘ Benkei in the drama "Kanjinch˘", which was staged at the Kabukiza; the roles of Togashi and Yoshitsune were played by Onoe Kikugor˘ V and Ichikawa Metora II.

March 1903: premiere at the Kabukiza of the drama "Kichirei Soga no Ishizue", which was produced to celebrate the shűmei of Onoe Kikugor˘ VI, Onoe Baik˘ VI and Onoe Eizabur˘ VI; Danjűr˘ played the role of Kud˘ Saemon Suketsune [casting].

May 1903: Danjűr˘ appeared on stage for the last time, at the Kabukiza, where he played the roles of Ofuku no Kata, Kasuga no Tsubone and Tokugawa Ieyasu in the drama "Kasuga no Tsunone".

13 September 1903: Danjűr˘ died in T˘ky˘.

Comments:

Ichikawa Danjűr˘ IX belonged to the triumvirat of stars who dominated the Kabuki world during the Meiji era (the two others were Onoe Kikugor˘ V and Ichikawa Sadanji I). He spent lots of time and energy pioneering a new genre called katsureki but the T˘ky˘ audience was more receptive to his amazing performances in the great roles of Kabuki like ďboshi Yuranosuke ("Kanadehon Chűshingura"), Kumagai Jir˘ Naozane ("Kumagai Jin'ya"), Sukeroku ("Sukeroku Yukari no Edo Zakura") or Benkei ("Kanjinch˘").

"Ichikawa Danjűr˘, the ninth, was the torch-bearer of Kabuki during the long reign of the Emperor Mutsuhito, known as the Meiji era, which endured for forty-five years ( 1868-1912). Danjűr˘, the ninth, was the bridge that spanned the sudden gulf which yawned between the traditional past and the uncertain and changing modern world. He may be regarded as the saviour of Kabuki during a period when it might have suffered shipwreck, had there not been a man of genius at the helm to guide the craft through the troubled waters." (ZoŰ Kincaid in "Kabuki, the Popular Stage of Japan")

En travaillant les profiles psychologiques et Úmotionnels de ses hÚros et en exigeant de ses auteurs (Kawatake Mokuami, Fukuchi ďchi) un effort intense en terme de vÚracitÚ historique, il crÚe un nouveau genre, le katsureki (abrÚviation de katsud˘ rekishi, ź l'histoire vivante ╗). Le public ne suit pas et boude le Katsureki, dont les piŔces sont souvent terriblement ennuyeuses. Amer, Ichikawa Danjűr˘ IX dÚclare en 1893 : ź les crÚations de ce genre [katsureki] me donnent un mal fou alors que les spectateurs n'y prennent aucun plaisir. Pourtant, lorsque je monte une piŔce du vieux rÚpertoire, je n'ai qu'Ó prendre une belle pose pour que, comblÚs, ils Úclatent en applaudissements. Alors puisque c'est comme ša, les crÚations d'ťuvres nouvelles, maintenant ša suffit, basta ! ╗ (source : Le Kabuki devant la modernitÚ).

[1] His yag˘ during his Kawarasaki years.

[2] The 6th day of the 8th lunar month of the 7th year of the Kaei era was the 27th of September 1854 in the western calendar.

[3] The 29th day of the 9th lunar month of the 2nd year of the Ansei era was the 8th of November 1855 in the western calendar.

[4] The 2nd day of the 10th lunar month of the 2nd year of the Ansei era was the 11th of November 1855 in the western calendar.

[5] The 23rd day of the 3rd lunar month of the 6th year of the Ansei era was the 25th of April 1859 in the western calendar.

[6] The 23rd day of the 9th lunar month of the 1st year of the Meiji era was the 7th of November 1868 in the western calendar.

The actor Ichikawa Danjűr˘ IX playing the role of Kamakura Gongor˘ Kagemasa in the bombastic drama "Shibaraku", which belong to the Kabuki Jűhachiban (print made by Torii Kiyosada)

Prints & Illustrations

Print made by Utagawa Toyokuni in 1861

Print made by Utagawa Toyokuni in 1861

Print made by Utagawa Yoshitsuya in 1862

Print made by Toyohara Kunichika in 1863

Print made by Toyohara Kunichika in 1871

Print made by Toyohara Kunichika in 1871

Print made by Toyohara Kunichika in 1873

Print made by Toyohara Kunichika in 1877

Print made by Y˘shű Chikanobu in 1881

Print made by Toyohara Kunichika in 1882

Print made by Toyohara Kunichika in 1887

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

Print made by Torii Kiyosada

The Ichikawa Jukai line of actors

The Kawarasaki Ch˘jűr˘ line of actors

The Kawarasaki Gonjűr˘ line of actors

The Kawarasaki Gonnosuke line of actors

The Ichikawa Danjűr˘ line of actors

 
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